The Apostolate of Marian’s Devotion of Montfortian today

The Apostolate of Marian’s Devotion of Montfortian today is never separated from Saint Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort [1673-1716]. Our discussion or reflection on what is the essence of The Apostolate of Marian’s Devotion is in direct contact with the teachings or Marian Spirituality of Saint Montfort. Regarding this theme, we can explore this theme in the light of the Mariological work of “the classical theologian”, namely True Devotion to Mary.

The book of True Devotion to Mary understood by most people as the masterpiece of Saint Louis de Montfort (hereinafter referred to as Montfort), is a work of undeniable quality. The work of this French saint very effectively helped catapulted his name throughout the universe and showed the deepest side of a special and intimate devotion to Mary which in turn also marked his spiritual journey.

According to Cardinal O'Connell, Montfort's teachings, known as the so-called practice of True Devotion to Mary are widespread among religious priests and even laypeople throughout the world[1] Seeing this kind of impression, the Cardinal said that the influence was felt all over the world and that it was to him an auspicious thing.[2]

In the following, some thoughts and reflections related to the themes discussed in this paper will be presented. This paper is divided into three main parts, namely, the spirituality of Louis de Montfort's devotional service, Louis de Montfort's Marian apostolate, the Marian apostolate, and the modern vocation of Montfortian.

I. THE SPIRITUALITY OF MARIAN DEVOTION OF SAINT LOUIS DE MONTFORT

To explore and know more about the apostolic spirituality of Marian devotion a la Montfort, it is very necessary to know one of his Mariological works, namely True Devotion to Mary. This writing can be regarded as one of the great masterpieces that helped catapulted his name throughout the world until today.

I. 1. Bakti Yang Sejati Kepada Maria Dan Praktik Yang Sempurna

The book of True Devotion to Mary the masterpiece of Montfort, contains the main content of the Marian doctrine or Mariology.[3] From this book of the "Apostolic Missionary", Montfortians and Christian readers can draw so much wealth and inspiration for his apostolic life and work in proclaiming Christ in the world through Mary. If one knows the work of this saint, it means that he knows the deepest core of spirituality and the Marian doctrine of the French "classical theologian".

Indeed, this book has been printed in various languages and that means it has been “reviewed” (read: talked about or discussed) many times in different languages.[4] It's just that this question arises; do people know the book well and understand the full contents of the French saint's work? To what extent is this book known and liked or in demand by Christian readers today and especially in Indonesia?

From the notes given by Alfons Bossard, perhaps we can get a general idea that it turns out that Montfort's book has been spread everywhere and translated into various languages, including Indonesian.[5] This means the writings of this saint are known and known everywhere.

What Montfort calls True Devotion to Mary basically is an attitude of service (devotion)[6] special veneration directed at the Holy Virgin Mary. This French saint places great emphasis on the practice of such reverence in the life of every Christian. Devotion[7] to Mary is seen as an obligation for all those who are aware of the mission of God entrusted to Mary (cf. Luk 1:26-38).

In that context, every preacher of God has a very noble pastoral task, namely to lead Christians to a recognition and appreciation of true devotion to Mary. On the other hand, when a preacher, for example in this case someone who feels moved by a great passion for proclaiming Montfort's teachings, can propose a perfect practice, then it also becomes an invitation and even an obligation to put it into practice. In this regard, Bossard said that complete devotion to Mary is a form of living a spiritual life that is impossible if no one is willing to use the method offered by Montfort. That's why Bossard said: "we also need to find (read: use) another way to worship Mary in honor of her other than the way our Founding Father taught us." memakai) cara lain untuk berbakti kepada Maria demi suatu penghormatan kepadanya selain cara yang diajarkan oleh Bapa Pendiri kita.”[8]

With that said, it is true that if there was a way other than the one taught by Montfort, then of course a special honor was made to Mary. However, the question that arises like this, is the way that is taken much more effective and efficient in a devotion (devotion) to the Holy Virgin Mary? According to Bossard, actually when Montfort talks about “perfect practice”, what it seems is that he is referring to certain methods that have been set in specific patterns or ways to be practiced, consciously lived in one's devotional life.

For him, Montfort is justified in how he describes the practice he teaches as a perfect way because it demands the radicality of giving, and surrender to Christ and because Mary is present as the perfect instrument.[9] This saint offered a “perfect practice of True Devotion.” This he speaks of in True Devotion to Mary 118-273. If we delve into this section, it means tracing the core of the explanation of the perfect practice. Very clearly, Montfort said that he did not know of any devotion to the Virgin Mary that was the best, other than that which he described himself in his Mariological work. The devotion (devotion) that she teaches and offers is essentially a form of respect for Mary. This reverence will eventually lead to a closer union with Christ. Therefore, his teachings are very Christocentric, where Christ is the ultimate goal of worship or veneration of Mary.[10]

The devotion taught by Montfort can be seen as a model of life, precisely a form of respect that glorifies God, purifies humans, and benefits others. Montfort wrote:

“After all this, I say aloud that I have read almost all the books which speak of devotion to the Most Holy Virgin, and have had intimate discussions with the holiest and most learned persons in recent years, and I have never known or hear of a practice of devotion to the Holy Virgin comparable to the devotion I wish to describe, which demands from a soul more sacrifices for God, which empties the soul more from itself and from its love for itself, which nourishes the soul more faithfully in grace, and grace in that soul; which unites the soul more perfectly and more easily to Jesus Christ; and finally that which is more honorable to God, more sanctified to the soul and more useful to others.”[11]

In the next number, num. 119 Montfort recognizes the gradation of devotion (devotion) to Mary. There he describes at length and explains what is the deepest core of devotion that he teaches. The essence of this teaching lies in the "inner element" which should be formed better than in humans. For this saint, not everyone can understand this kind of devotion.

He saw that there were indeed some people who only came to the outer side and then stopped. The number of this group is large. Then, some people will continue to advance to the inner level. Their numbers were smaller than the first group and they had only gone up one level. Furthermore, there is a group of people who make it to the third level, namely, he to whom the Spirit of Jesus Christ will reveal this secret. So for Montfort, only the Spirit of Jesus would unlock this special secret. According to him, “It was he who led that very faithful soul there, to make it progress from virtue to virtue, from grace to grace and from light to light, to arrive at the transfiguration of himself in Jesus Christ, and to the fullness of life- Him on earth and the fullness of His glory in heaven.”[12]

While Montfort is justified when he emphasizes the radicality of self-giving in the practice, he is justified in other ways as well. He is justified when through that practice, everyone is facilitated and benefits when practicing it has a very strong belief to advance to perfection thanks to the grace of self-giving to Mary.[13] . Montfort was realistic – on the one hand, he said that the devotion to Mary he taught was superior to all other devotions[14] – but on the other hand he also never suggested that the practice he taught was the only good way. to achieve the perfection of the Christian life.[15]

As Bossard said, Montfort's strength lay in his presentation, as never before. This includes two things, namely, first, true devotion to Mary and why it is necessary. Second, self-dedication to Mary and "holy slavery"[16] to her (read: Maria) leads to total consecration to Christ in the hands of Mary. In this way, the word "sanctification" denotes the full theological value and embodies all that should exist.[17]

I. 2. Awesome Results from Appreciation Of True Devotion To Mary

Montfort longs for anyone who faithfully observes the “special devotion to Mary” to truly experience permanent union with Christ, his Son. This can be read as the personal testimony of this French saint about his own experience. Based on his own experience of his deep devotion to Mary, he dares to say so. Montfort shows some interesting things that arise when the practice of giving oneself to Christ through Mary is lived properly and correctly. It can be seen starting from TD 213. He said that the humble Mother Mary will share her deep humility so that everyone can despise himself and want to love him. Then, in TD 214, he points out that it is Mary who will give us her faith. Further, in TD 215, he explains how Mary expands our hearts. What Maria does in this context is that she will remove all kinds of over-sensitivity and fear from within herself. It is further said that Mary will fill him with pure love.

So, actually, with the help of the Holy Virgin Mary, we no longer act out of a certain fear of God, but out of pure love. Then in TD 216, Montfort says that it is Mary who will increase our strong belief in God and ourselves. One of the things he said was about how we approach Jesus. In this case, a person who wants to come to Christ is not based on his strength, but because of the intercession of Mary. Montfort wrote: “The Holy Virgin will fill you with great trust in God and herself: 1. For you shall not approach Jesus Christ leaning on your strength but always through this good mother.”[18]

This saint explained that it is Mary who will dress or adorn us with all our rewards[19] graces, and recompense with the intention that she too can use it according to her heart's will (Mary). Then in exchange for that practice of surrender, Mary will give herself to us in a wonderful but tangible way. In short, through all of Mary's help, this "Apostolic missionary" actually wants to say that the attitude that needs to be deeply instilled is to "rely on Mary", who is "the treasure of God."[20]

Further in num. 218-221, Montfort describes how Mary can shape Jesus in us. He said: “If you keep Mary, the tree of life, well in your soul through this devotion and experience, in time she will bear fruit and that result is none other than Jesus Christ.”[21]

Then, at num. 222-225, this “classical theologian” shows how Maria encouraged a process of rapid growth in living the practice she taught. One of the important points that can be made here is that if everyone is willing to practice this practice faithfully, then according to the language of this “Apostolic Missionary”, he will pay more respect to Jesus Christ than if he had practiced for many years.[22]

II. Marian Apostolate of Louis de Montfort

Gaffney sees that Montfort's devotion or respect for the Virgin Mary still needs to be carefully examined and studied, meaning that it needs to be tested to what extent it brings people (read: people) to be more united with Jesus Christ, the Son of Mary. For 16 years Montfort developed Marian Spirituality which was not only conditional with mere theological nuances but also adapted it to the situation and level of the simple people in Western France.[23]

II. 1. Montfort's Missionary Work: Parish Mission and Retreats

One of the important factors in the development of Marian Montfort Spirituality, namely the implementation of more than 200 retreats and missions.[24] It is inconceivable that this French saint carried out hundreds of retreats and missions in his native land. Perhaps in this context, as Gaffney put it, the effect of his Marian devotional service had a good and useful effect on "the needs of the Church." It does not only happen in the Church of West France but becomes a necessity of the diocese itself, the parish area.

First of all, the simple thing that can be said is that although the pattern and content of his preaching do not deviate from existing theological foundations, Montfort wants to take an approach that can simply reach the people. This means that he tries to make his preaching work easily understood and accepted by the people.[25] In this context, the missionary wants his mission of service and preaching to be immediately captured and well received. So, the mission is made in such a way that people find it easy to follow and enjoy its fruits. This indeed must be in line with enthusiasm in bringing God closer to them in a simple and uncomplicated manner. That is why Montfort's preaching is aimed at the simple and not the thinkers or the intellectual elite.[26] Thus, Marian's teaching and preaching methods are right on target and easily understood by the people. It can be seen that the missionary wanted his mission of service and preaching to be immediately understood and well received. What Montfort did in his mission of service to the people touched the hearts of the people. In this regard, it is said that Montfort's influence on the people was extraordinary. According to Blain, his best friend, there are three components of Montfort's power in attracting the sympathy of the people, namely, an devotion to Mary whom he calls his good Mother, insatiable thirst, and heroic obedience.[27]

Montfort puts forward a theology that is simple and can be well received by his people. It can be found in his masterpiece, True Devotion to Mary. According to Bossard, this traveling missionary prefers to convey his teachings to small and simple people. In our imagination, if it is conveyed to the underprivileged, then it is certain that the language used is also simple, teaching with categories of thinking that are simple, easy to accept and affect people's lives.[28]

That is why it is true that biographers or those who research Montfort's life and work emphasize the simplicity of his thoughts and teachings. This saint did not want to be a theologian, thinker, or even a scholar and writer for an academic need. This saint's writings were rarely published in his lifetime and probably remain unfinished. One of his basic longings was that he wanted to always and only be a missionary for the villagers. He is very concerned about the marginalized, the simple people by traveling to the villages while teaching the catechism and teaching how to live a life of faith properly and correctly.[29]

The book of True Devotion to Mary probably written[30] written only a few years before her death, demonstrates this saint's basic ability to proclaim the truths of the faith through examples, symbols, and analogies that appeal to her people. It doesn't have to be culturally appropriate in the 21st century. Gaffney notices that in Montfort's preaching of Mary, some raw material can be seen as the topic of his conversation, namely about "the king, ..., rotten apples, ... family life, pregnancy and birth, servants and servants."[31]

Montfort was a good and reliable “theologian”, “missionary”, and “teacher” for the people. He spoke many things about the Triune God and the Virgin Mary. He was truly seen as a “great and popular” “Apostolic Missionary.” His greatness lies in his ability to explain his teachings or spirituality (Marian in a simple and easy-to-understand way to the people. That is why in his teaching or preaching, he uses songs or folk songs, lectures from the pulpit, and the elaboration of various processions that can lead people into the complex truths of faith. It was also explained that when compared to Henri Boudon’s (1624-1702)[32] work on "Holy Servants", Montfort's writings, namely True Devotion to Mary and The Secret of Mary were more concise and clear. Furthermore, his Mariological work is at the same time more theologically based than Boudon's writings or works which seem more of a very Baroque style; rather complicated and sometimes convoluted.[33]

II. 2. The Emphasis on The Renewal Of The Baptist Promise: The Art Of Living The Christian Life

Another influence of Montfort's ministry on his Maria consecration was the emphasis on "Devotion to Jesus through Mary" so commensurate with the renewal of the Baptist promises. Montfort knew these things during his time in seminary, but they only came about as he experienced the influence of his pastoral work. According to Gaffney, this can be imagined as an approach that Montfort embodied in such a way that he was fully aware of its value. Then he affirmed it as a hallmark of the missionary work and retreats he gave.[34] . Gaffney observed that it was not only clearly preached but taught as a framework for Marian's lifestyle.[35] It is simply said that is it only in True Devotion to Mary – except for the famous formula of Consecration which is found only in LEW 223-227 – Montfort makes it explicit that Marian's perfect devotion is the perfect renewal of the promise. - Baptism promise?[36] It is worth remembering that the essence of what this French saint taught was the same, namely "to dedicate oneself to Christ through the hands of the Blessed Virgin Mary." So, there are no two self-dedications; one to Christ and the other to Mary. Montfort emphasizes only one dedication. Montfort time and time again places great emphasis on this teaching to his people and even in a sense to his listeners today, all Christians without exception.[37]

This saint strongly urges Christians to perform the Act of “Self Consecration” to Jesus through Mary. His spirituality was filled with that spirit . In this context, the life of a Christian in the eyes of Montfort must be colored by a spirit of total surrender to God. In this sense, Mary is seen as a way or a means in the process. Montfort paraphrased this act as the “secret” to experiencing perfect fellowship with Jesus Christ. What the “Apostolic Missionary” taught about “Self-Dedication” to God is, in essence, a complete renewal of the baptismal promises that have been spoken. This is indeed one of the main characteristics of Spirituality of "Self-Dedication " a la Montfort. Therefore, it is often said that the “Self Consecration” taught by the “classical theologian” is a direct implication of the Sacrament of Baptism.[38]

II .3. Montfort and The Spirituality in His Own Lives

Every writer or author must have a style in writing, a certain tendency or theology-spirituality which is it’s characteristic. In other words, a writer inherits a character or style of thinking and reflection that distinguishes him from others. As a “spiritual writer” in his day, Montfort had a wealth of spirituality passed down to the Church. His writing style, theology, and spirituality are also different from spiritual writers or even other theologians. One of his most prominent spiritualities is the "Marian Spirituality" or Marian Doctrine.[39] Montfort is not only able to string words beautifully and deeply in a weighty series of writings, but also to live them strongly and deeply in his pastoral work or ministry.

Montfort's apostolic ministry had a very strong influence on his Marian devotion by exploring the spirit of his own Marian Spirituality. About this, Gaffney wrote:

“The profound changes brought about in his village missions convinced him of the need to be ever more immersed in living the faith, of being truly a child and slave of Mary, Mother and Mistress, in order to be filled with the Spirit for the glory of God Alone.”[40]

The profound changes that Montfort brought in his mission of service to his homeland gave him confidence in how it was necessary to immerse himself more and more in living the faith. It helped him learn to continually be a child and servant of Mary, who is Mother and Queen so that she would also be more and more filled with the Spirit of God's glory alone.[41]

Montfort was convinced that he basically could not teach effectively in words if his own life were not a living gospel. Or in other words, this missionary cannot proclaim the Gospel well, if he does not live it consistently.[42] Montfort managed to spread the faith well in shelters, prostitution houses, and town squares. In this context, Gaffney sees that the role of Mary in the Christian life is rooted in the heart of this contemplative missionary.[43] He proclaims a truth of faith that also influences the lives of the people he serves.

According to Gaffney, the fruit of his preaching that he received and felt convinced him that the person of Mary must be important to his own life in Jesus Christ. The depths of the faith that Montfort had and his intimate union with God had led him to a mystical union with the Virgin Mary. This French saint has become a person who is open to her maternal influences. In his song, Montfort says that he has brought Mary into the center of his being. Montfort wrote:

“Here is something hard to grasp: In my heart’s center I carry her Etched with strokes of glory, Yet in faith’s darkness still.”[44]

Gaffney says that Montfort can talk about “totally changing the effect of Consecration” because he has experienced it deep within himself.[45] It is interesting to note further that even though Montfort had gone through a high phase of life, namely having a mystical experience with the Virgin Mary, he never asked for or even longed for a vision, revelation, or spiritual pleasures. In another Mariological work, The Secret of Mary this saint wrote: "I ask you not visions or revelations or tastes or pleasures, not even spiritual ones."[46] Montfort does not want anything other than to live by faith itself, therefore the matter of “vision” or personal revelation is not a goal to be achieved or to have (cf. Jn 20:29; 1 Cor 13:12).[47]

II. 4. Montfort’s Marian Devotion and Modest People

As a “little folk theologian”, whose writings were mostly devoted to them, Montfort was very dedicated to his Marian teaching for simple people. This fact helps to design the way we think about the apostolic dimension of Marian's doctrine which he teaches and proclaims. From this, Bossard realized that it would be very surprising if Montfort did not understand and articulate the apostolic dimension of all devotion to Mary. Bossard wrote:

“Although he does not include this dimension among the visible marks of true devotion, we would not be betraying him to consider it one. It is naturally connected to Mary and her mission: if she was made to lead us to Christ and help us to know him, how could she not urge her children forward on this same path? Whatever can be said of true devotion (e. g. TD 48, 57-59, 62, 113) can a fortiori be said of its perfect practice (e. g. TD 171-172, 214, 265).”[48]

The Marian teaching (Mariology) of Montfort is not only limited to doctrinal aspects but also has an apostolic or apostolic dimension. So, it is true as Bossard said that the missionary's teaching about Mary helps the readers to be able to live more strongly a true devotion to Mary in the praxis of everyday life. The practice of honoring Mary in this context leads one to experience an intimate and permanent union with Christ.[49]

The more people know how to pay proper homage to Mary, the more fully she becomes one with Christ. Close union with Mary will enable a person to unite himself and his whole life with Christ, the fruit of his commendable body. Montfort always invites and convinces his people in his ministry or apostolate so that anyone willingly wants to live the practice or respect for Mary correctly and full of gentleness.

II .5. Marian Devotion and Union With Christ

According to Bossard, the term "Perfect Consecration to Jesus Christ" was essentially the first truly original subtitle of Montfort's writings. This phrase refers to the perfect practice of devotion to the Holy Virgin, who will lead everyone to walk in perfect entry to Jesus in harmony with the first principle of all true devotion.[50] . Girolamo dal Maso says that this self-dedication – as Montfort thinks – is seen as a form of unione a Cristo; that is, the union with Christ in which, Mary is seen by this saint as the supreme model. For him, Mary is the one who is most united with her Son so that in that way she is most dedicated and most consecrated to Him.[51]

For Montfort, a person's perfection must indeed appear in his “union with Jesus Christ” and this union only becomes possible and is made more perfect when he is dedicated to Mary. This means that when someone dedicates himself to Mary, where he also pays special respects to her. Hence, the more he is dedicated, the more he is united to his Son Jesus Christ. It is said so because, for Montfort, Mary is the one who is closest, most closely related to the Son. So, if this “Father of the poor” says that the more one is united to Mary – paraphrased as “dedicated to Mary” – the more deeply and completely one is dedicated to Jesus Christ.[52]

From Montfort's notes, it can be explained that Mary is the means, the way to union with Christ. So in this context, it is appropriate that Montfort presents a form of Christocentric devotion (devozione cristocentrica). Thus, it is also true that as Christians, we all find ourselves at the very heart of the union with Jesus Christ which was incorporated in Baptism from the start and then renewed constantly as Montfort describes in TD 126-131.

To become “wholly belonging to Jesus Christ” through Mary, may each person give himself “totally and absolutely” In this regard, Montfort explains the importance of complete surrender to Mary so that whoever does it – through her – belongs to Jesus Christ. The totality of surrender is stated clearly by Montfort in TD 121. There he explains that surrender is both outward and inward (body, soul, present and future physical possessions, as well as inner and spiritual possessions). For this saint, a such surrender is a form of total and radical self-giving.[53]

If we look back at the "surrender to Christ through Mary" as Montfort thought, then we also ask "how does one direct this to Mary?" According to Bossard, this seems like a form of action or attitude of latria that is only directed at God. If this understanding is highlighted, then Mary's position is equal to God, whereas on the contrary it must be said that worship is only given to God, and to Mary, only a tribute (hyperdulia).[54] is given. According to Corrado Maggioni, Mary was glorified after her son surpassed angels and men by the grace of God and even because she is the Mother of God who has shared in the mysteries of Christ. This is the reason why this service was directed to him specifically.[55]

In Montfort's view, all true devotion to Mary is directed to Christ and united to Christ. This should be placed at the heart of the Christian life. The greater one's devotion to Mary, the clearer and stronger will be his union with Christ, which is the ultimate goal of that devotion. Therefore, perfect practice is tantamount to a perfect renewal of baptismal vows. This explains why devotion is so “simple” because it does not include new obligations for those who wish to receive it. Bossard wrote:

“After we are consecrated, we must attempt to accomplish all that our state of life requires, in the spirit of interior practice. Again, we need to find methods of doing this, and so it is useful to have recourse to these particular practices, which are flexible and bountiful and can be observed “as far as one’s cicumstances and state of life permit (TD 257).”[56]

Still in the relationship, Montfort said:

“Selain praktik-praktik lahiriah dari bakti ini, yang baru kami sampaikan, yang – sejauh status dan keadaan masing-masing orang memungkinkan – tidak boleh ditinggalkan oleh karena sebuah kelalaian atau oleh karena menganggapnya hina, berikut ini adalah praktik-praktik batiniah yang sangat menguduskan bagi orang-orang yang Roh Kudus panggil kepada kesempurnaan yang tinggi. Praktik-praktik ini dapat diungkapkan dengan empat kata, melakukan segala perbuatan kita melalui Maria, bersama Maria, dalam Maria dan untuk Maria, agar melakukan semuanya secara lebih sempurna lagi melalui Yesus Kristus, bersama Yesus Kristus, dalam Yesus dan untuk Yesus.”[57]

From this statement of Montfort, it can be said that the special forms of devotion that he offers to everyone are ways that can be used and lived for the sake of achieving perfection. It is experienced inwardly which can be paraphrased asmebedaun”, i.e. “through, with, in, and for Mary.” In short, it can be explained thus:

first, "Through Mary." People carry out their actions through Mary. Here, everyone who wants to use Mary, where in all things, he wants to learn to obey the holiest Virgin and allow himself to be guided by her spirit, which is the Holy Spirit of God (cf. Rom 8:14).[58]

Second, "With Mary." One has to do his thing with Maria. In this context, Montfort views Mary as the perfect model of every virtue and perfection formed by the Holy Spirit in a pure being. It means that he can imitate him according to his very limited ability. Simply put, Montfort put it this way: "how would Maria have done this or how would Maria have done it, if she had been on our side?"[59] For him, for this to be well lived, one needs to integrate the virtues of Mary into one's life.

Third, "In Mary." One must do his thing in Mary. To understand this point (in Maria), Montfort says that one must know some basic things. These things include recognizing Mary's identity as the “True Paradise Garden of the New Adam, the place where the New Adam, Jesus Christ had fun for nine months. In addition, he also needs to know the other identities of Mary as stated by the Church Fathers, for example, “East Gate, where the High Priest Jesus Christ entered and left the world, the divine temple, the resting place of the Most Holy Trinity, the throne of God, the city of God, the altar of God, the temple of God and the world of God."[60]

Fourth, “Untuk Maria.” Orang harus melakukan segala tindakannya untuk Maria. Menurut Montfort, oleh karena seseorang telah menyerahkan diri seutuhnya demi mengabdi Maria, maka dalam hal ini, Maria di mata sang “Misionaris Apostolik” ini adalah “tujuan dekat kita, lingkungan hidup yang penuh rahasia dan sarana yang mudah untuk pergi kepada Yesus Kristus.”[61] Jadi, Kristus harus menjadi tujuan final (kristosentris) dari bakti yang dilakukan melalui Maria. Jikalau tidak, maka menurut Montfort itu adalah sebuah “tipuan setan.”[62] Maria hanyalah sarana yang dipilih Allah untuk sampai kepada Kristus. Montfort sangat menekankan dimensi ini.

III. The Marian Apostolate and the Calling of Montfortian today

If we read Montfort's Mariological works, True Devotion to Mary and also several other Mariological works such as The Secret of Mary, and The Secret of the Rosary, then actually a loyal follower of Montfort feels called and at the same time challenged to understand, live or integrate it in his daily life. Therefore, the call to proclaim the teachings of Marian Montfort is an invitation for every Montfortian in living his apostolic work, and also an invitation for Christians who feel moved to explore and live and spread it in their life, work, and mission amid the world.

As a follower of Montfort in this day and age, a Montfortian as well as those who are interested in his Marian Spirituality can draw a great deal of wealth from his spiritual heritage, and the Marian teachings that he embodies in his written works as such. Through pastoral works or apostolic work amid the people; in the parish, in categorical groups, or the formation of candidates (initial – advanced formation), a Montfortian is invited and encouraged to constantly integrate all his vocation and mission with the apostolate and Marian teachings of his Founder.[63] Mary's presence in this Order, in my opinion, is not a coincidence, or an additional element that is sideways but is a necessary condition (conditio sine qua non [absolute[ly] condition). Its presence in the entire life of the Tarekat is like a "constitutive" element that cannot be ignored, a presence that gives its characteristics and colors.[64] Just as Montfort in the Church is seen as one of the many saints who have a close relationship with the Virgin Mary,[65] so every Christian of all ages is called to imitate her in seeing her as a "mother" who guides the journey of life, vocation and his apostolic work.

III. 1 Devotion and Marian Teaching of Montfort Remain Actual

Between the life and work of Montfort and the life of Christian humans in the modern era or the contemporary world, there is a considerable distance and difference. One is a product of the Baroque period,[66]he lived 300s years ago,[67] in a period that is not easy to live in. To most authors, these French saints lived in a period of difficulty (irregular chaos). De Fiores says that in the eyes of Montfort, the missionary and mystic, the situation in his day was not encouraging. According to him, “Montfort described the situation of society at the end of the 17th century as “general chaos” (TD 127), “the kingdom of the rotten world” (SM 59), and “the kingdom of the enemies of God (DM 4).”[68] ).” In the face of the “general chaos” (TD ), De Fiores said that Montfort felt the need to cry out: “Fires, please!” (DM 28) seemed to be in the presence of great danger.[69]

The Montfort era and this era were very different. The life situation and theology of the French saints in his time with the mindset, the theological orientation of today is certainly different. Even so, Montfort as a child who lived in his day could not be underestimated or his presence seemed unable to contribute to the Christian life of faith today. The doctrine of Marian the saint still has its contribution and relevance to the life of Christians in contemporary times.

Despite the differences in the context of life and quite different tendencies, Montfort's teaching to live or run the Fiat of Mary which is loving to God (cf. Lk 1:38) is a "big challenge for contemporary society." The doctrine of Marian the “classical theologian” is a call to seek renewal of faith in life in harmony with the radicalism of the gospel in imitation of Mary's life example and with the effective assistance of her motherly role. According to Gaffney, Montfort emphasizes very clearly the totality of the life of the Virgin Mary in the Word, it makes us all understand what is the radicality of life for God.

When the world theoretically accepts the reality of globalization, and celebrates it but is impotent or unable to face its challenges, the teachings conveyed by Montfort offer insight and a practical way to create a new world order, which he paraphrases as a "global village".global village". In Mary, the “speaker” of the universe to all, we are all brothers and sisters of the redeemed Jesus Christ, so we are his sons and daughters.[70]

It is clear that through Montfort's doctrine of Mary, it is only through active and responsible total surrender to God – remember the dimension of Consecration a la Montfort – that victory, the glory of the Cross can be realized. Gaffney said that for the Kingdom of God to truly exist and be experienced in human life, it is not enough to just sit idly by and do nothing. In short, it requires real action through caring and active participation in alleviating the burden of suffering for others.[71] So, in this context what is called "social sensitivity" to the world around it needs to be discussed in real terms and revealed in concrete actions.

The Marian doctrine taught by Montfort in a sense shows the dimension of the release of the Virgin Mary who surrenders herself to God. In addition, from within him came to a call to do charitable work for others or the world around him. In this context, Mother Mary is a person who is very sensitive both to God's call and to the call to serve others (cf. Jn 2:1-11). He was faithful and obedient to God and listened to Him carefully. This holy and noble woman actively takes part in the work of realizing the Kingdom of God in the world through her Fiatanswer that monumental. This means that this realization becomes possible only when a person lives in God, precisely he has a close union with the Source of all things, namely God. It is precisely in this sense that the Virgin Mary has fully lived it, in which she submits herself and learns to be obedient to God (cf. Lk 1:38). In this sense, it is very true that in all human limitations, it must be admitted that without God we all can do nothing at all, like Mary we too allow ourselves to fully enter into His meekness to then be divinized and be in good harmony with the world, themselves and with others. Why is that because as Gaffney said we are in obedience to the source of all things, which is God Himself.[72]

Through that statement, the thing to be underlined is "the totality of Mary's surrender". The surrender of the Virgin Mary is directed at the meekness, and goodness of God as an effort – in addition to being ‘divine’ – but also so that she can live in harmony with the world, with herself as well as with others. This must be lived precisely in full obedience to the Source and Purpose of all things, namely God Himself (Deo Soli). It is precisely in this context that the Mariology of the French saint leads us all to the center of our faith.[73]

III. 2. Marian Teaching of Montfort relevant to spiritual-Apostolic

Even though Montfort conveyed his Marian teachings at a certain time and context that was heavily influenced by the Baroque nuances of the 17th century, in essence, the teachings were never lost. The Marian doctrine of the saint is very contextual in today's times. In particular, if we want to look at the development of life in the present, especially amid the emergence of so many changes and tendencies of Christian human life in this century, we should be grateful that the teachings of Marian Montfort have never been "lost the train" or irrelevant. His teachings or doctrines still have value and significance in the lives of Christians today. This is emphasized by Gaffney.

In essence, Montfort's teaching about the Holy Virgin Mary is still very relevant today. It is said so because the Mariology of Montfort in particular about true "devotion" (consecration) to Mary is a call to live the Gospel completely and consistently.[74] . Apart from that, another teaching that is seen as still very relevant for the context of life in this day and age, is the call to transform oneself, to change one's life that is more focused on God. About this, Montfort is very firm and principal in teaching and living it. Through her proclamation of Mary, the Virgin who is faithful and obedient to God, Christians are invited to learn much from Mary's attitude to life. So, in summary, there remains a call to turn from everything that does not belong to God. The spirituality of the French School places great emphasis on this dimension.[75] One of the main stresses is the denial of the world, which is a call to recognize the world and oneself as completely nothing before God. The attitude that needs to be lived is also to humble oneself before God.[76] The faithful and humble Virgin Mary has embodied this spirit throughout her entire life journey. The Church itself sees her as "an example of motherly love, which should inspire all who are involved in the Church's apostolic mission for the new birth of their fellow man."[77]

The view that rejects the world and all kinds of ideals of secular life without caring about God or not wanting to know anymore and talk about God (indifference to Him or even anti-Him ( atheists, agnos),[78] ), actually has received full attention. from Montfort. However, all of these are less desirable and even do not fit in the perspective of post-modern humans. This call, according to Gaffney, was rejected by the West. The West in a certain sense displays a very secular character of life, which sometimes cannot tolerate or agree with the active and highly responsive Fiat of Mary. On all this, Gaffney wrote:

“It is rejected especially by the highly secularized West, which cannot tolerate joining in with Mary’s active and responsible Fiat. In a haughty, do-your-own-thing age, an era marked by little if any doctrinal or moral restraints – characteristic of the West – Montfort’s doctrine is as acceptable as Jeremiah’s was to the people of Jerusalem. The saint’s boldness in his proclamation of Mary as the model and of the necessity of joining in with her representative surrender to the Lord is highly unpalatable to the self-sufficient, rugged-individualist citizen of the first world.”[79]

If we pay attention to Gaffney's statement, it can be said that it is true that Montfort places great emphasis on the figure of Mary as an example of the holiness of human life in all ages,[80] including this era. Even if the world today is not very interested in the practice of pious living or “holy and pure living”, the call to make it happen is always there and remains open. De Fiores said that although at the moment there seems to be a tendency, anti-action or an "allergic" attitude to "holiness" itself, Catechism of the Catholic Church num. 493, 721, 829, 1161, 2675, 2677, 1370, 2030 help us to reflect and deepen the meaning of “holiness” in question.[81] The vocation of Montfortians and Christians is actually on this path, called to live the meaning of "holiness" in life like the Holy Virgin Mary. Holiness is an essential character of the Church, it is even the most charming and prominent sign of the Lord's coming amid men. So as René Latourelle, Canadian priest and theologian, said, “holiness” is one of the most urgent signs offered to the world.[82] Interestingly, how best to live the sanctity of life in today's world, Mary's presence is seen as par excellence. He was made his “model.” This holy woman became tuttasanta (read: whole holy). The Catechism of the Catholic Church, (CCC) is explained extensively and in-depth about Mary as the prototype of Christian holiness.[83]

The example that should be lived by humans in this day and age lies in the attitude of total surrender to God like the Virgin Mary. In summary, Mary's dedication to God as the source of her life's wisdom (cf. Lk 1:38; Joh 2:1-11) should continue to encourage and influence Montfortians and every Christian today to live a life full of self-surrender. on him. It's just a shame, not all these "beautiful, sweet, and grandiose" things are included in the dynamics of human life. Gaffney said that making Mary such a personal model before God for humans today is very displeasing to the citizens of the first world (read: the Western world) who feel that living alone or being individualistic is enough. Of course, this is a big challenge for evangelism in this century. dunia Barat) yang merasa hidup sendiri saja atau individualis sudah cukup. Tentu hal ini merupakan tantangan besar bagi pewartaan Injil di abad ini.[84]

Through the teachings of Marian Montfort, it can be said that in fact, this saint left behind a definite fact of the permanent validity and relevance of the consecration of life, "Devotion to the Virgin Mary, Mother of God." Through her Marian teaching, we can get the idea that Mary's giving herself to God through her FiatFiat at the time of the Incarnation is an example that should be internalized by every Christian.[85] Therefore, a person's inability to grasp the saint's intentions will lead him to be misunderstood. In turn that would make it difficult for him to view Mary as the preeminent example that the Church teaches.[86] So as Gaffney says, only a mistaken understanding of God's self-disclosure allows one to ignore Mary.[87] In this context, Montfort does not teach and expect any form of worship of Mary, because for him it is a model of blasphemy against God.[88] Thus, it is clear that Christians must remain faithful to worship only God and to Mary, it is sufficient to be given a high honor (hyperdulia). That is the devotion that Montfort emphasizes throughout his doctrine.

Marian Montfort's teachings are indeed not immediately understood and easy to put into practice because the pressure on Maria's person seems to be so high and sometimes people who are still new to her teachings and spirituality will consider it "too much". Some even accuse Marian Montfort's doctrine of falling into this category; exaggerating or exalting Mary or what is known as "maximalism."[89] But in fact, it is not so, Mary is not equal, equal to God. He was as far away from God as Montfort said. Montfort does not position Maria as "the divine" as one might think of the maximalism of his Marian teachings.[90] The teachings of Marian the Father of the poor were very Christocentric, Trinitarian and Ecclesial. The more a Christian respects Mary, the more he honors Christ and unites himself more perfectly with Him. Everything just happened in and through Mary.

The teachings of Marian Montfort in a certain sense help the Christian man of today to learn without shame and fear to learn to immerse himself before God just as Mary experienced. In this sense, it is appropriate to say that Montfort's teaching about the "smallness" or "nothingness of Mary", a "little girl" filled with boundless love, is a sign of hope for contemporary humans who sometimes experience fear and feel lost when they have to. surrender himself completely to God.

So actually, in the eyes of this French saint, Mary is a necessary and very valuable person for Christians who long to be healed of the darkness of heart and desire to be sanctified by God.[91] Therefore, together with Mary, as Mother and Queen, Christians who sometimes lose hope in life, can "immerse themselves" or "immerse themselves" (read: immerse themselves) in God who is the Love itself. In song 28:43 Montfort writes “My soul, lose yourself in God, totally and forever. Expect all your help from God alone even though you will be censored; do not be fond of the world; fly then, free as a bird, in supreme peace, poor even to the grave.”[92] In this absence, hope is only in Him, because in Him there is help or help.

Closing

When people talk about Montfort, it's possible to think about these things; a person who is rigid, principled-firm, simple, creative artist and prefers to approach the poor and simple; an accomplished missionary and preacher, prayer ("mystic") and a person who has a deep and intimate devotion (devotion) to the holy Virgin Mary. The experience of God and his deep relationship with Him seems to have led this saint to be able to produce various kinds of interesting, deep, and meaningful writings.

What Montfort writes in his Mariological works is not just a systematic, theoretical description born of a product of his deeply personal thoughts and reflections, but is lived and lived in all his apostolic and missionary works as a priest, a dignified Marian missionary. Montfort has won many souls in living his Christian vocation by studying faithfully as an obedient servant of Mary to God. What this French saint inherited and taught is actually in a certain sense a very valuable invitation for Montfortians and Christians today to always proclaim and spread the spirit of Marian Spirituality that he inherited and taught in the Church.

Fr. Fidel Wotan, SMM


[1] Salah seorang kudus dari Prancis, Santo Jean-Théophane Vénard, M.E.P, – seorang misionaris Katolik Indo-China (martir) – pernah mengatakan bahwa banyak orang dewasa ini (red: pada masanya) merasa bahwa buku Bakti yang Sejati yang ditulis oleh Montfort dan devosi yang direkomendasikannya terlalu sedikit diketahui bahkan oleh para imam dan terlalu sedikit direkomendasikan. Sebetulnya buku Montfort tersebut memiliki popularitas di antara para awam, selain itu sangat direkomendasikan oleh paus, uskup, teolog dan penulis rohani sebab buku orang kudus ini dirasakan sangat berharga dalam bimbingan jiwa, dan merupakan sarana kesucian yang tak tertandingi bagi para rohaniwan, religius dan awam, Diyakini bahwa Bakti yang Sejati bukan hanya (dikhususkan) untuk para kudus dan bukan hanya untuk saat-saat terakhir kehidupan. Sebelum beliau meninggal, ia melakukan ‘Pembaktian Diri’, menguduskan dirinya menurut formula yang diajarkan oleh Montfort. Lih.https:///www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=7201. Diakses pada 26 Februari 2022 di Roma. Buku True Devotion to Mary menampakkan kedalaman Mariologi yang amat kaya akan kualitasnya. Ringkasnya, buku ini pun sebetulnya mengandung ajaran tentang Maria yang sangat kaya dan memiliki otoritas yang tinggi. Paus Benediktus XV (1914-1922) mengatakan bahwa buku Bakti yang Sejati karya Montfort merupakan sebuah buku yang memiliki uraian dan otoritas yang tinggi. Sedangkan, Paus Pius XII (1939-1958) memandangnya demikian: “kekuatan terbesar di balik seluruh pelayanan apostolik (St. Louis de Montfort) dan rahasianya yang besar untuk menarik dan memenangkan jiwa-jiwa bagi Yesus adalah baktinya kepada Maria (kutipan ini diambil dari Kanonisasi Montfort pada 20 Juli 1947).” Lih. SAINT LOUIS DE MONTFORT, O’Connell in the Preface of True Devotion to Mary with Preparation for Total Consecration, Saint Benedict Press, Charlotte, North Carolina 2010, hlm. vii-viii. Bdk. ANDRE FROSSARD, “Be not Afraid!” Pope John Paul II Speaks Out on His Life, His Beliefs and His Inspiring Vision for Humanity, St. Martin’s Press, New York 1982, hlm. 124-127. 

[2] Bdk. SAINT LOUIS DE MONTFORT, O’Connell in the Preface of True Devotion to Mary with Preparation for Total Consecration, hlm. xv-xii. 

[3] Salah seorang pakar Spiritualitas Prancis mengatakan bahwa di antara para kudus pada masanya “barangkali di segala zaman, Grignion de Montfort merupakan seorang yang mungkin melangkah lebih jauh dalam pendalaman teologis tentang bakti kepada Maria dalam pelayanan kehidupan Kristiani… karya tulis Bakti yang Sejati kepada Maria tetap menjadi buku klasik devosi marial”. Memang popularitas Montfort, dalam lingkup yang paling beragam bertumpuh pada doktrin marialnya dan tersebar luasnya karya tulis True Devotion to Mary. Lih. R. DE VILLE, L’ècole française de spiritualié, Paris 1987, hlm. 154. Bdk. A. VALENTINI, “Una teologia mariana cristocentrica trinitaria ed ecclesiale”, L’osservatore Romano 29 April 2020. 

[4] Catatan tentang hal ini dapat dilihat dalam studi yang dilakukan oleh Pater Alfons Bossard, SMM. Dikatakan bahwa pada tahun 1902 terdapat 67 edisi Bakti yang Sejati dalam delapan (8) bahasa. Selanjutnya pada 1956, terdapat 253 edisi dalam delapan belas (18) bahasa. Dari informasi ini, bisa dibuat suatu opini bahwa betapa luar biasa hebatnya pendistribusian buku orang kudus ini secara luas di seluruh dunia melalui pengambilan sampel singkat dari beberapa angka publikasi pada tahun 1902 dan 1956. Menurut Bossard, ini tidak termasuk edisi yang diterbitkan oleh para Misionaris Montfortan yang ada di Jerman, Swiss, Austria di mana mereka menerbitkan lima edisi pada 1902 dan 30 edisi pada 1956. Kemudian di Inggris terdapat tiga edisi pada tahun 1956. Trend yang sama berlaku pula bagi Belanda dan Italia, begitu pula negara-negara berbahasa Spanyol. Selain itu, terdapat pula edisi tulisan Montfort di lima belas (15) negara di mana Komunitas Montfortan tidak pernah hadir. Bossard mengatakan bahwa tentu usaha seperti ini merupakan hal yang amat mengagumkan. Meluasnya penyebaran karya Montfort itu menunjukkan kenyataan bahwa ternyata masih ada orang lain di luar komunitas para Montfortan yang terdorong untuk mewartakan Maria a la Montfort. Bossard mengatakan pula bahwa pada saat penulisan buku tersebut, terdapat sekitar empat ratus (400) edisi yang dimuat oleh lebih dari tiga puluh bahasa. Bdk. A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion” dalam S. DE FIORES (ed.), Jesus Living in Mary, Montfort Publication, Bay Shore, NY 1994, hlm. 1215-1216. (Selanjutnya disingkat JLM). 

[5] Sejauh ini, ada beberapa edisi cetakan True Devotion to Mary dalam Bahasa Indonesia yang diterjemahkan oleh Mgr. Ishak Doera, Pr (2000, 2003, 2005 dan 2009) dan terjemahan P. Arnold Suhardi, SMM (cetakan terbaru) yang dikeluarkan oleh Pusat Spiritualitas Marial Montfortan (PSMM), Malang tahun 2019. 

[6] A. Tostain, mengatakan bahwa istilah “devosi” (devotion) dihubungkan dengan dua sikap utama. First, sikap batin yang diarahkan untuk melayani Allah. Ia menulis: “Au sens premier, devotion = ardeur à server Dieu.” Jadi, ini berkaitan erat dengan “disposisi batin” yang diselaraskan dengan kehendak dan jiwa. Ia berkata bahwa sikap batiniah ini kemudian tampak dalam tindakan nyata, namun yang paling utama ialah apa yang ia sebut dengan “an interior disposition” (disposisi batin). Tindakan ini (devosi) tampak dalam iman dan memiliki sumbernya dalam “tindakan kasih” dan seringkali dapat diidentifikasi. Second, arti kata devosi dikaitkan dengan tindakan-tindakan praktis. Ia mengatakan bahwa devosi pertama-tama dan terutama menyangkut suatu “tindakan kebaktian eksternal”. Akan tetapi telah menjadi suatu kebiasaan dengan memakai istilah “dévotion” (atau devosi “khusus”- dévotion «particuliere»), seperangkat tindakan keagamaan yang diusulkan atau setidaknya disahkan oleh Gereja, terinspirasi oleh objek khusus. Menurutnya, devosi tidak lain merupakan suatu daya tarik spiritual, suatu keterikatan baik pada objek dari kebaktian maupun pada tindakan atau “praktik” yang mengekspresikannya. Bdk. A. TOSTAIN, “Devotion(s)”, dans A. BOSSARD (sous la direction), Petit Vocabulaire Marial. Collection “Voici ta Mere”, Desclee De Brouwer, Paris 1979, hlm. 59. 

[7] Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI), kata “bakti” memiliki dua pengertian: first, “tunduk dan hormat; perbuatan yang menyatakan setia (kasih, hormat, tunduk); kepada orang tuanya.” Second, “setia, memperhambakan diri: pembayaran upeti dari negeri taklukan merupakan tanda bakti kepada Baginda, sebagai tanda bakti kepada nusa dan bangsa.” Selain kata “bakti”, KBBI juga menyebut kata “berbakti” yang berarti “berbuat bakti kepada”, “setia kepada”, misalnya: “Setia kepada Tuhan dengan cara melaksanakan perintah-Nya dan menjauhi larangan-Nya. Selain kedua kata itu, dijelaskan pula kata kerja “membaktikan” yang berarti; first, “menghambakan; menggunakan segenap tenaga untuk berbakti kepada”, Second, “memberikan sesuatu sebagai tanda bakti.” Sedangkan kata benda “pembaktian” diartikan oleh kamus ini sebagai “proses, perbuatan, cara membaktikan.” Dari sini, kemudian kita dapat mengerti arti dan makna kata benda “pembaktian” (consécration) dalam terang pemikiran Montfort. Lih. DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN, Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta 1988, hlm. 71. Bdk. F. WOTAN, Pedoman Umum Perserikatan Maria Ratu Segala Hati (PMRSH) Indonesia: Melalui Maria Menuju Yesus, Pusat Spiritualitas Marial Montfortan (PSMM-Malang), Kanisius, Yogyakarta 2021, hlm. 16.

[8] Bdk. A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, hlm. 1222. 

[9] cf, Ibidem.  

[10] Montfort berkata: “Yesus Kristus, Penebus kita, sungguh Allah dan sungguh manusia, harus merupakan tujuan akhir dari semua bakti lain yang kita hayati, jika tidak, semua bakti itu palsu dan menyesatkan. Yesus Kristus adalah Alfa dan Omega, Awal dan Akhir dari segala sesuatu.” L. M. G. DE MONTFORT, True Devotion to Mary 61, terj. A. SUHARDI, Pusat Spiritualitas Marial Montfortan [PSMM], Malang 2019, hlm.41. (Selanjutnya disebut TD).  

[11] TD 118. Menurut Battista Cortinovis dan François Marie Léthel, bagian ini (red: TD 118) dilihat semacam prolog yang mendalam terhadap penyajian praktik khusus bakti (devosi) kepada Maria, pokok bahasan seluruh karya. Di sini, sang penulis (Montfort) ingin mengusulkannya sebagai jalan kekudusan yang sejati, jalan mistik yang terbuka bagi semua orang yang dibaptis, yang mampu menuntun pada persatuan sempurna dengan Yesus Kristus menuju kemuliaan Allah. Bdk. Https://www.upra.org. i fondamenti teologici della vera devozione a Maria. Diakses pada 3 Maret 2022, pkl. 22.54 di Roma. 

[12] cf, TD 119. 

[13] cf. TD 152-168. 

[14] Bakti (devosi) yang diajarkan Montfort adalah bakti (devosi) yang terbaik dan paling menyucikan serta mampu menghantar orang menjauhi dosa (TD 108) dan paling sempurna (TD 118). Alasan utama mengapa orang kudus Prancis ini mengatakan bahwa bakti (devosi) kepada Maria merupakan bakti (devosi) yang paling sempurna dan menyucikan yakni, “Maria” itu sendiri. Bagi Montfort, “Maria” adalah pribadi yang paling sempurna dan paling suci dari segala makhluk. Jadi, kalau orang memilih bakti (devosi) kepada Maria sebagai praktik yang sempurna dan menyucikan, maka hal itu justru terjadi karena “kesucian dan keunggulan Maria dari segala makhluk” (TD 157). 

[15] Bdk. A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, hlm. 1222. 

[16] Battista mengatakan bahwa bakti (devosi) “Perhambaan Suci” pertama kali datang dari Spanyol. Jikalau ditelusuri lebih jauh, asal mula Spiritualitas “Perhambaan Maria” tampak dalam tulisan-tulisan Fransiskan Spanyol, John of Angels (1536-1609). Menurut Battista, istilah slave (hamba) dipakai pada masa itu, namun sebetulnya itu dapat dilihat ke belakang pada Santo Ignatius dari Loyola yang merenungkan kelahiran Kristus seraya memikirkan dirinya sendiri sebagai “hamba kecil Maria, Yosef dan Sang Anak (Yesus).” Battista mengatakan bahwa ungkapan “pelayan” dan “hamba” dari Perawan Terberkati dapat dijumpai pula dalam John of Avila (Yohanes dari Avila). Bdk. B. CORTINOVIS, Montfort Pilgrim in the Church, terj. T. DOUCETTE, Missionari Montfortani, Roma 1997, hlm. 64. 

[17] A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, hlm. 1222-1223. 

[18] TD 216. 

[19] Kata “pahala” (le mérite) dalam terjemahan Indonesia muncul begitu banyak. Misalnya dalam terjemahan baru True Devotion to Mary (2019) di sana terdapat 73 kali (dalam The Secret of Mary Montfort memakai juga kata ini, hanya sangat sedikit) kata itu disebut, tersebar di beberapa nomor. Apa itu pahala? Dalam bahasa Montfort – sejauh yang diterjemahkan ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia – di situ dijelaskan bahwa “pahala” merupakan nilai perbuatan baik (la valeur méritoire). Secara lengkap Montfort menguraikannya dalam TD 122. 

[20] Montfort berkata: “Oh! Betapa meneguhkan dan menggembirkan bila orang dapat berkata bahwa harta Allah – tempat di mana Dia telah menyimpan hartaNya yang paling bernilai – adalah juga hartanya! Ipsa est thesaurus Domini: dia adalah harta Tuhan”, kata seorang kudus.” TD 216. 

[21] TD 218. 

[22] cf. TD 222. 

[23] Bdk. Gaffney mengutip BLAIN, 28. Bdk. P. Gaffney, “Mary”, JLM, hlm. 696.

[24] cf, Ibidem. Bdk. G. D’AMICO – M. BARALDO, Spiritualità mariana: alla scuola di san Luigi Maria da Montfort, Edizioni Montfortane, Roma 1997, hlm. 15. 

[25] Bdk. P. Gaffney, “Mary”, JLM, cit., hlm. 696.

[26] Ibidem. 

[27] Bdk. G. D’AMICO – M. BARALDO, Spiritualità mariana: alla scuola di san Luigi Maria da Montfort, hlm. 14. 

[28] cf, TD 26. Bdk. A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, hlm. 1214. 

[29] Bdk. G. MUCCI, “San Luigi Maria di Montfort un maestro per il nostro tempo”, in la Civiltà Cattolica (2001), hlm.29. 

[30] h menjadi suatu hal yang tetap diperhatikan. “Izin” itu diberikan oleh René-François Soyer, Uskup Lucon, pada tanggal 18 Desember 1842, dan karya itu muncul pada tahun 1843. Dikatakan bahwa “Direktur Seminari Lucon” adalah dia yang bertanggung jawab untuk penerbitan edisi pertama. Dialah yang dikenal dengan nama Augustin Grillard, yang masuk ke Serikat Maria pada 6 Oktober 1851. Para editor pertama memilih judul buku yang secara umum bisa dikenal saat ini, “Uraian tentang Bakti yang Sejati kepada Perawan Tersuci.” Menurut Bossard, mereka membagi buku / tulisan ini menjadi beberapa bagian dengan maksud agar lebih mudah diakses. Bdk. A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, cit., hlm. 1214. 

[31] P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, cit., hlm. 696.

[32] Henri Boudon (1624-1702) merupakan salah satu dari beberapa tokoh (mentor) spiritual yang terkenal di zaman Montfort. Selain dia masih ada tokoh-tokoh lain dari lingkungan sulpician yang ikut memengaruhi perjalanan rohani Montfort seperti J. J. Olier (1608-1657), Jean-Joseph Surin (1600-1665), Louis Tronson (1622-1770). Bdk. F. B. WOTAN, Salib adalah Kebijaksanaan, Kebijaksanaan adalah Salib (Skripsi), STFT Widya Sasana, Malang 2008, hlm. 32-33. Bdk. J.-B. BLAIN, Summary of the Life of Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, terj. B. J. RABILLER et al., St. Gabriel Press, Rome 1977, hlm. 35. 

[33] Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, cit., hlm. 696. 

[34] Bdk. L.-M. G. DE MONTFORT, The Secret of Mary (Le Secret de Marie) 56, terj. SERIKAT MARIA MONTFORTAN, SMM, Bandung 1993. (Selanjutnya disingkat SM).

[35] Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, hlm. 696-697. 

[36] cf. TD 126-130. 

[37] Spiritualitas Marial Montfort sebetulnya dengan sangat elok, dapat dikatakan sebagai ”seni hidup menjadi orang Kristen” yang diparafrasekan dengan sebutan ini: ”Pembaktian Diri kepada Kristus lewat tangan Maria” atau yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan ”Pembaktian Diri.” Orang kudus ini dikenal dan diikuti oleh banyak orang dewasa ini oleh karena ia menawarkan suatu jalan (model) hidup yang menarik, yakni ”seni untuk menjadi kudus.” Malahan ini disebutnya sebagai ”rahasia” untuk menjadi suci, yakni rahasia untuk mengalami secara nyata persatuan dan keserupaan dengan Kristus dan Maria adalah jalan yang aman, lurus dan tak bernoda, sebab melalui Maria kita dapat menemukan Kristus. Bdk. TD 50. Bdk. G. D’AMICO – M. BARALDO, Spiritualità mariana: alla scuola di san Luigi Maria da Montfort, hlm. 19. 

[38] Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Consecration”, JLM, hlm. 214. 

[39] Bdk. G. D’AMICO – M. BARALDO, Spiritualità mariana: alla scuola di san Luigi Maria da Montfort, hlm. 15-16. 

[40] P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, hlm. 697. 

[41] cf, Ibidem.  

[42] Lih. L.-M. G. DE MONTFORT, The Hymns of St. Louis-Marie de Montfort. God Alone vol. II in MISSIONARIES OF THE COMPANY OF MARY (ed.), Montfort Publications, Bay Shore, New York 2005, 91, hlm. 397-407 (Selanjutnya disingkat song [K]). Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, cit., hlm. 697. 

[43] Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, cit., hlm. 697. 

[44] song 77:15. Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, cit., hlm. 697. 

[45] cf. TD 257-265. Bdk. Ibidem.  

[46] SM 69. Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, cit., hlm. 697. 

[47] Selain Abraham yang menghayati suatu ketaatan iman kepada Allah, ia menjadi “Bapa kaum beriman” (bdk. Ibr 11:8), Maria dengan imannya yang mendalam akan Sabda Allah juga adalah sosok yang pantas menjadi teladan bagi setiap umat Kristiani dalam peziarahan imannya. Bdk. LG 58. Tentang ini, Paus Yohanes Paulus II berkata: “Seperti St. Yohanes dari Salib, St. Montfort terutama menekankan kemurnian iman dan kegelapannya yang mendasar dan yang kadang menyakitkan (bdk. RM 51-52). Iman yang kontemplatif-lah yang, dengan menyangkal segala hal yang inderawi dan luar biasa, menembus ke kedalaman yang tak terbahasakan dari diri Kristus.” Dikutip dari Surat Paus Yohanes Paulus II untuk memperingati 160 tahun Edisi Pertama True Devotion to Mary (1843-2003) Mahakarya St. Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort. Kutipan ini diterjemahkan oleh A. Suhardi. Lih. L.M. G. DE MONTFORT, True Devotion to Mary 61, terj. A. SUHARDI, Pusat Spiritualitas Marial Montfortan [PSMM], Malang 2019. Lih. Lettera alle Famiglie monfortane in occasione del 160° anniversario della pubblicazione del “Trattato della vera devozione alla Santa Vergine” di San Luigi Maria Grignion de Montfort (13 gennaio 2004) Giovanni Paolo II (vatican.va). Diakses pada 6 Maret 2022 di Roma. 

[48] A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, hlm. 1223. 

[49] cf, Ibidem. Dalam terang pemikiran Montfort, apa yang kita sebut sebagai penghormatan atau bakti (devosi) kepada Maria samasekali tidak mengahalangi perjumpaan dengan Kristus, justru dipermudah untuk mengalaminya, sebab seperti kata Montfort bahwa semakin kita menghormati Maria, semakin kita menghormati Yesus Kristus. Bagi orang kudus ini, seseorang menghormati Maria supaya Yesus Kristus semakin mendapat tempat di hatinya. Montfort berkata: “Sebab tidak pernah kita semakin menghormati Yesus Kristus daripada ketika kita semakin menghormati Perawan Tersuci, karena kita menghormati Maria hanya supaya kita dengan lebih sempurna menghormati Yesus Kristus: kita pergi kepadanya hanya seperti pergi ke jalan untuk sampai ke tujuan akhir ke mana kitah melangkah, yaitu Yesus.” BS 94.  

[50] cf. TD 120. 

[51] G. DAL MASO, DIEU SEUL: Scrittura mistica e teologica in S. Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Edizioni Monfortane, Roma 2005, hlm. 309. Bdk. TD 62, 120. 

[52] cf, TD 120. 

[53] TD 122-123. 

[54] A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, hlm. 1223. 

[55] Bdk. C. MAGGIONI, “Il rapporto della Chiesa con Maria: culto e forme di devozione nel capitolo VIII della Lumen gentium”, in E. M. TONIOLO (a cura di), Maria nel concilio. Approfondimenti e percorsi a 40 anni dalla Lumen gentium”, Centro di Cultura Mariana “Madre della Chiesa”, Roma 2005, hlm. 40. 

[56] A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, cit., hlm. 1223. 

[57] TD 257. 

[58] cf. TD 258. 

[59] cf, TD 260. 

[60] cf. TD 262. 

[61] TD 265. 

[62] cf, TD 62. 

[63] Sejauh ini, para Montfortan di seluruh dunia telah menunjukkan geliat atau semangatnya dalam mewartakan dan menghidupi ajaran Spiritualitas Marial Montfort dalam berbagai bidang karya pelayanan. Salah satu karya pelayanan yang dilakukan oleh para Montfortan ialah “pendampingan, pembinaan” bagi kaum awam, seperti kelompok Maria Ratu Segala Hati, yang di Indonesia dikenal cukup kental dengan sebutan Kerabat Santo Montfort (KSM) atau yang saat ini lebih menggunakan nama Perserikatan Maria Ratu Segala Hati [PMRSH]. Selain itu, pendampingan dan pembinaan untuk kelompok umat awam, perhatian juga diberikan kepada kelompok awam lain khususnya kaum muda yang dikenal di Indonesia dengan nama “Montfort Youth” (Remaja Montfort) atau “Orang Muda Montfort” (OMM). Para Montfortan di Indonesia dengan segala kreativitasnya (baik yang ada di paroki, di komunitas biara/misi maupun yang ada di rumah-rumah pembinaan) telah berusaha menghidupkan kelompok-kelompok awam tersebut sambil tetap mencari cara atau model karya pastoral-misi pelayanan yang cocok atau yang berkarakter marial dan selaras dengan kebutuhan yang ada. Dari antaranya, barangkali bisa digarisbawahi misalnya, program tetap “Zafari Rosario” para Montfortan di Flores (Novisiat-Paroki) dalam kerjasamanya dengan pihak keuskupan dan umat yang diadakan hampir setiap tahun di Kota Ruteng (Flores-Manggarai). Atau program pembinaan para Montfortan bagi para anggota PMRSH (KSM) di beberapa wilayah di Indonesia dan program pendampingan para kaum muda (Montfort Youth -Remaja Monfort) di beberapa paroki di mana para Montfortan hadir, serta pembinaan terhadap kaum muda Montfort (OMM – Orang Muda Montfort) yang dijalankan di kota Malang saat ini. Selain hal-hal ini, barangkali masih ada kreativitas-kreativitas lain yang dilakukan, dihidupi oleh para Montfortan dalam rangka semakin menghidupkan dan mewujudkan semangat kerasulan marial yang diwariskan dan dihidupi sendiri oleh Bapa Pendiri. Pesan Paus Yoh, Paulus II untuk seluruh keluarga besar Montfortan di seluruh dunia dalam hal menghidupi dan menyebarkan harta warisan Spiritualitas Montfort, kiranya terus mendorong dan menyemangati mereka semua. Bdk. SERGIO GASPARI, “Un Pontefice ‘confratello dei Montfortani’ Monfort figura significativa per il b. Giovanni Paolo II”, in http://www.cuorinaviganti.it/files/Un-Pontefice-confratello-dei-monfortani.pdf. Diakses pada 5 Maret 2022 di Roma. 

[64] Setiap Tarekat atau Kongregasi Religius lain yang bernafaskan Maria atau hidup di dalam bimbingan dan perlindungan Bunda Maria biasanya memiliki semangat dasar serupa. Para pendiri mereka pun tentu meletakkan semangat dasar hidup para pengikut atau anggotanya juga dalam kategori serupa “menjadikan Bunda Maria sebagai panutan, model dan teladan hidup mereka.” Sebetulnya panggilan hidup serupa pun dapat diasimilasi oleh setiap murid Kristus, memandang Perawan Suci Maria sebagai “Bunda dan teladan serta model hidup kekristenannya” (bdk. Yoh 19:26-27). Bdk. PAOLO VI, Esortazione apostolica per il retto ordinamento e sviluppo del culto della Beata Vergine Maria, Marialis cultus 21 (2 febbraio 1974), in Enchiridion Vaticanum [=EV], EDB, Bologna 1979, vol. 5, no. 21, hlm. 73.  

[65] Bdk. S. DE FIORES, Maria. Nuovissimo Dizionario, Testimoni e maestri, vol. 3, Dehoniane, Bologna 2008, hlm. 440. 

[66] Tentang “barok” ini, dikatakan bahwa asal-usulnya tidak jelas. Istilah “barok” berasal dari Bahasa Portugis baroque atau dalam Bahasa Spanyol barrueco yakni kata benda yang menunjukkan suatu jenis mutiara yang bentuknya tidak teratur. Menjelang akhir abad ke-18, istilah “barok” digunakan dalam pengertian yang “eksentrik”, “extravagant”, dll. Saat ini, istilah ini telah masuk dalam kosa kata (kamus) kritikus untuk mendefiniskan gaya artistik pada abad ke-17 sebagai prasyarat memenuhi kriteria estetika pada masa itu sebagai suatu seni yang sejati. bdk. A. HAUSER, The Social History of Art: Renaissance, Mannerism and Baroque, vol. III, Library of the Central European University Budaphest, London 1992, hlm. 158-159. 

[67] Montfort hidup dalam sebuah periode yang sulit pada masanya. Tentang hal ini, Salvatore M. Perella menulis: “Montfort hidup pada Zaman Barok yang bersinggungan dengan roh kritis dan pada akhirnya dengan zaman Pencerahan, sebuah fenomana budaya yang terjadi antara Revolusi Inggris tahun 1648 dan revolusi berdarah Prancis tahun 1789, yang bersumber pula di negara-negara utama Eropa: sebuah era yang ditandai dengan adanya putaran roh geometri ke roh finesse.” Menurutnya, Montfort menjadi bagian dari zaman tersebut atau hidup dalam periode yang sukar dan pada waktu yang sama merupakan seorang putra Gereja yang setia dan penuh dengan antusiasme berada di tengah-tengah bahaya dan masalah yang serius. Dia sungguh hidup dalam sebuah periode yang tidak mudah, sebuah masa senjanya para mistikus tatkala ujian internal sungguh-sungguh muncul dari Gallikanisme dan Yansenisme. Selain itu muncul pula ujian eksternal berupa ketidakstabilan ekonomi serta kemalangan sebagai akibat perang yang dikehendaki oleh Raja Louis XIV dari tahun 1671 dan seterusnya serta kelaparan yang hebat pada tahun 1693 dan 1709. Lih. S. M. PERRELLA, “La Consacrazione alla divina Sapienza per le mani di Maria: proposta trinitario-battesimale di s. Luigi Grignion de Montfort”, in B. CORTINOVIS – S. DE FIORES – E. VIDAU (a cura di) Spiritualità trinitaria in comunione con Maria secondo Montfort. Atti dell’8 Colloquio internazionale di mariologia Roma, 11-13 ottobre 2000, Edizioni Monfortane, Roma 2002, hlm. 121. 

[68] Bdk. S. DE FIORES, Maria. Nuovissimo Dizionario, Testimoni e maestri, hlm. 473. 

[69] cf, Ibidem.  

[70] GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, hlm. 718-719 

[71] Panggilan untuk berada bersama mereka yang kecil, yang tersingkirkan dari tengah masyarakat, ringkasnya mereka yang miskin dan yang menderita, sejatinya itu merupakan panggilan Gereja sebagaimana yang Kristus sendiri datang untuk melayani mereka yang kecil dan menderita. Dia hadir secara nyata bagi mereka yang lemah, yang miskin dan menderita (bdk. Mat 19:21; 25:40,45). Dia sendiri pula yang menyatakan orang miskin berbahagia dan ingin menjadi miskin bagi orang lain (bdk. Mat 5:3; Luk 6:20; 2 Kor 8:9). Konstitusi Pastoral tentang Gereja di dunia dewasa ini, Gaudium et spes no. 1 menunjukkan ekspresi keprihatinan kepada dunia (manusia) yang tidak hanya mengalami sukacita, tetapi juga mereka yang miskin dan menderita. Di sana dikatakan bahwa kegembiraan dan kecemasan manusia pada zaman ini terutama mereka yang miskin dan menderita merupakan kegembiraan, kecemasan dan duka para murid Kristus. Solidaritas Yesus dengan kaum yang menderita tak terbantahkan. Yesus adalah seorang yang sangat tersentuh dengan penderitaan orang lain (sesama). Ia melihat bahwa penderitaan orang lain merupakan sebuah undangan bagi-Nya untuk mengambil suatu tindakan untuk menolong dan menyelamatkan mereka. Montfort, adalah salah satu dari sekian banyak orang kudus yang telah mewujudkan apa artinya menjadi bagian dari kaum yang hina dina, mereka yang miskin dan menderita itu. Cara hidup Kristus adalah cara hidup Gereja demikian juga baik pengajaran maupun cara hidup Montfort adalah teladan dan inspirasi bagi kita para Montfortan (dan juga kaum Kristiani) di segala zaman sampai hari ini untuk berbelarasa (solider) dengan mereka yang miskin dan menderita. Bdk. CATECHISM OF THE CHATOLIC CHURCH, Second Edition. Revised in accordance with the official Latin text promulgated by Pope John Paul II, nn. 218-221, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2019, hlm. 59-60. Bdk. TD 26. Bdk. A. BOSSARD, “True Devotion”, JLM, hlm. 1214. Bdk. JOHN SOBRINO, Jesus the Liberator: A Historical-Theological Reading of Jesus of Nazareth, translated by PAUL BURNS – FRANCIS MCDONAGH, Burns & Oates, Wellwood, Nort Farm Road 1994, p. 90. 

[72] Bdk. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, hlm. 719.

[73] cf, Ibidem.  

[74] Melalui pengajaran marialnya, kaum Kristiani, khususnya para Montfortan dari setiap generasi sampai hari ini dipanggil untuk membenamkan diri dalam Spiritualitas Marialnya dan menjadikannya sebagai “lifestyle” bagi pertumbuhan, perkembangan hidup rohani secara pribadi maupun hidup apostolis dalam karya pelayanan baik di Paroki, di rumah-rumah pembinaan (formasi), di komunitas-komunitas biara / pusat-pusat misi, di kelompok-kelompok kategorial maupun di mana saja ia diutus dan berkarya. 

[75] Asumsi dasar dari Spiritualitas Mazhab (baca: Sekolah) Prancis yakni, manusia diciptakan oleh Allah dan dibentuk dalam rupa-Nya. Ia berasal dari Allah dan ia juga kembali kepada-Nya. Menurut Kardinal de Bérulle (1579-1629) kehidupan manusia di dunia ini mestinya menjadi jalan (lorong) kecil, yang ditandai oleh hal-hal yang menunjukkan kepadanya bahwa ia dipanggil untuk mengalami hidup di surga. Bdk. S. A. MUTO, in the Preface to W. A. THOMPSON, Bérulle and the French School, Paulist Press, New York 1989, hlm. xv-vi. 

[76] cf, Ibidem., hlm. xvi, 48. 

[77] LG 65. 

[78] Kaum agnotis memiliki cara pandang atau pikiran seperti ini. Bagi mereka tidak penting apakah Allah ada atau tidak, bahkan ketika mau mencari-Nya pun dilandaskan pada sikap acuh tak acuh. Katekismus Gereja Katolik melihat kaum agnotis seperti kaum atheis praktis. Bdk. CATECHISM OF THE CHATOLIC CHURCH, Second Edition. Revised in accordance with the official Latin text promulgated by Pope John Paul II, n. 2127, p. 516. Bdk. A. KENNY, The Unknown God: Agnostic Essays, Continuum, London 2004, p. 9. 

[79] P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, hlm. 718. 

[80] Kadangkala manusia (dunia) kurang menaruh minat dan respek dalam mengurusi perkara-perkara surgawai atau hal-hal suci, namun itu bukan berarti manusia di zaman ini samasekali tidak lagi mengenal Tuhan dan Agama. Justru panggilan untuk menghayati nilai-nilai keagamaan tetap ada. Sekalipun demikian, adalah Pavel Evdokimov mengatakan bahwa “kekudusan” sepertinya ketinggalan zaman dan terminologi ini malahan tampak kabur bahkan tidak lagi cocok eksis di tengah kehidupan modern. Berkaitan dengan pernyataan Pavel tersebut, pakar Mariologi, De Fiores melihat bahwa apa yang dinamakan dengan “kekudusan” atau “hidup suci” benar-benar dilingkupi oleh aneka praktik kejahatan duniawi. Menurut mariolog ini – meminjam bahasa Corrado Alvaro – sebetulnya ada suatu keraguan dalam hal ini, yakni hidup secara benar menjadi tidak lagi produktif atau berfaedah. De Fiores mengatakan bahwa mereka yang berjuang agar “tangan tetap bersih” (baca: hidup murni, kudus or saleh) tampaknya tidak berguna menyempurnakan aristokrasi berpikir menjadi kudus. Bdk. S. DE FIORES, “Tuttasanta nello ambiti teologici della santità di Maria”, in E. TONIOLO (a cura di), Maria nel catechismo della Chiesa Cattolica, Centro di cultura mariana, “Maria Madre della Chiesa”, Roma 1992, hlm. 105-106. 

[81] Lih. KONSILI VATIKAN II, Konstitusi Dogmatis tentang Gereja Lumen gentium (Terang Bangsa-bangsa) 56, 65, terj. R. HARDAWIRYANA, Departemen Dokumentasi dan Penerangan KWI, Jakarta 1990, hlm. 103, 111-112. (Disingkat LG). 

[82] Bdk. R. LATOURELLE, La sainteté signe de révélation, in Gregorianum 46 (1965), 1, hlm. 36-65. 

[83] Kesucian Maria dibicarakan dan ditetapkan sebagai sebuah kebenaran iman Gereja dalam apa yang disebut dengan “Dogma Maria Immaculata (Maria Tak Bernoda). Menurut De Fiores – sebagaimana yang digarisbawahi oleh CCC 491 bahwa berabad-abad lamanya – Gereja sudah mengakui Maria sebagai pribadi yang dipenui dengan rahmat itu dan ditebus sejak dari perkandungannya. Bagi teolog dan mariolog itu, kekudusan Maria dibicarakan dan direfleksikan dalam proses yang panjang. Ia mengatakan bahwa ini merupakan suatu perjalanan yang amat melelahkan yang mengatasi posisi para Bapa Gereja seperti Irenaeus dan Kristotomus yang mengakui adanya dosa dalam diri Maria, namun samasekali tidak menyangkal kekudusannya. Dalam CCC 493 dikatakan bahwa berkat rahmat Allah, Maria tetap murni dari dosa pribadi di sepanjang seluruh eksistensinya. “Bapa-bapa Gereja Timur menamakan Bunda Allah “Yang suci sempurna” [panhagia] … (LG 56). Karena rahmat Allah, Maria bebas dari setiap dosa pribadi selama hidupnya.” Bdk. S. DE FIORES, “Tuttasanta nello ambiti teologici della santità di Maria”, cit., hlm. 105-106. 

[84] Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, cit., hlm. 718. 

[85] Pola penghampaan diri Allah (kenosis) pada Maria – dalam terang pemikiran Montfort – sebetulnya dapat pula menjadi pola perendahan diri manusia Kristiani. Yesus Kristus tidak hanya sekedar mengosongkan diri-Nya, tetapi dalam pengosongan-Nya itu, Ia menggantungkan diri-Nya secara total. Ketergantungan Yesus pada Maria adalah suatu bentuk perendahan diri (kenosis) Allah (bdk. Flp 2:5-11). Meskipun demikian, ketergantungan diri Kristus di sini bukan mau menunjukkan bahwa ada ketidaksempurnaan dalam diri-Nya oleh karena Ia dilahirkan oleh Maria. Montfort menegasi kalau pernyataannya itu ditafsir demikian. Menurutnya, Maria berada sangat jauh di bawah Putranya yang adalah Allah. Maria tidak memberi perintah kepada-Nya sebagaimana layaknya perintah seorang ibu duniawi kepada anaknya. Bagi Montfort kalau dikatakan bahwa segala sesuatu di surga dan di bumi, malahan Allah, tunduk kepada Maria, maka sebetulnya Allahlah yang berkenan memberikan kuasa yang begitu besar kepada Maria sehingga kelihatannya seakan-akan Maria berkuasa sama seperti Allah. Bdk. TD 27. Bdk. P. GAFFNEY,”Incarnation” JLM, hlm. 699. Bdk. R. J. M. GENTLE, Jesus Redeeming in Mary, The Role of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Redemption According to St. Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort, Montfort Publications, Bay Shore, NY 2003, hlm. 148-155.

total pada Maria 

[86] Bdk. LG 53, 63. 

[87] Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, hlm. 719. 

[88] L. M. G. DE MONTFORT, The Love of Eternal Wisdom 205, terj. SMM BANDUNG, Serikat Maria Montfortan, Bandung 2005. (Disingkat LEW). 

[89] Pandangan ini justru menempatkan Maria ada di sisi Yesus (Maria dilihat sejajar, setara dengan Kristus Putranya) dan bersama Yesus memandang manusia. Posisi Maria sejatinya berada jauh di atas Gereja. Akibatnya, persepsi ini dapat mendewa-dewakan Maria (maksimalisme). Pandangan ini muncul amat kuat sebelum Konsili Vatikan II. Pemikiran ini sejatinya menekankan suatu tipe “Mariologi” yang ditilik dari sudut pandang Kristus (Mariologi tipe Kristus atau Mariologi Cristotipica) sebagai lawan dari Mariologi Ecclesiotipica (Mariologi tipe Gereja). Pandangan yang terakhir ini justru muncul dari suatu kerinduan yang mendalam dari para konsiliaris pada Konsili Vatikan II yang menghendaki dan mengusulkan agar Maria dimasukkan ke dalam skema tentang Gereja yang kemudian ikut menentukan perumusan mengenai dokumen Konstitusi Dogmatis, Lumen gentium VIII. Dengan demikian, Maria tidak lagi dilihat sebagai pribadi yang berada jauh di atas Gereja seperti pandangan tentang Mariologi tipe Kristus (cristotipica) pra Konsili Vatikan II, melainkan ia dilihat sebagai anggota Gereja. Dengan kata lain, Maria tidak lagi dilihat sebagai pribadi yang berada jauh di atas Gereja seperti pandangan tentang Mariologi tipe Kristus (cristotipica), melainkan masuk sebagai anggota Gereja. Hanya saja dalam posisinya sebagai anggota Gereja, ia memiliki kualitas yang jauh lebih unggul melampaui segala makhluk lainnya. Dalam konteks inilah, Gereja menatapnya sebagai typos atau model unggul. Maria juga – jikalau dilihat dari perspektif ini – adalah Gereja yang mempribadi. Dari sebab itu, apa saja yang terjadi pada Maria dalam kaitannya dengan Kristus, itu juga yang terjadi pada Gereja dalam kaitannya dengan Kristus. Bdk. LG 53. Bdk. S. M. PERRELLA, “Percorsi teologici postconciliari: dalla Lumen gentium ad oggi” in E. M. TONIOLO (a cura di), Maria nel concilio, approfondimenti e percorsi, Centro di Cultura Mariana, “Madre della Chiesa”, Roma 2005, hlm. 193-194. Bdk. A. E. KRISTIYANTO, Mary in the Church. The Teachings of the Second Vatican Council on Mary in the Church of Christ, Kanisius, Yogyakarta 1987, hlm. 12-13. Bdk. G. PASI, “Mariologi Konsili Vatikan II: Mikhrohistori Mariologi pra-Konsili dan Magna charta Mariologi Post-Konsili” dalam Studia Philosophica et Theologica, Vol. 16. No. 1, STFT Widya Sasana, Malang 2016, p. 44-47. 

[90] Bagi Montfort, di hadapan Allah, Maria adalah seorang buatan Allah: dia “hanyalah seorang makhluk yang dibentuk tangan yang Mahatinggi (TD 14), dia “yang lebih kecil dari sebutir atom”, atau tepatnya menurutnya, “Maria nihil samasekali” (TD 14). Atau seperti kata Gaffney di hadapan kaum Yansenis yang berseberangan dengan pemikiran orang kudus Prancis ini, justru menegaskan kekecilan Maria (ketiadaan) Maria di hadapan Allah. Dalam pengertian ini, tidak benar apabila Montfort melebih-lebihkan Maria dan karena itu menjadikan Maria sebagai seorang yang “sederajat dengan yang Ilahi”, sebab pada hakekatnya Maria adalah “maha karya dari Allah” (bdk. TD 50). Bdk. P. GAFFNEY, “Saint Louis Mary Grignion de Montfort and the Marian Consecration”, in Marian Studies, vol. 53, art. 14 (1994), hlm. 116. 

[91] P. GAFFNEY, “Mary”, JLM, hlm. 719. 

[92] song 28:43. 

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