Montfort's Mariology in True Devotion to Mary

P. Gregorius Pasi, SMM

In 2012 True Devotion to Mary (hereinafter referred to as TD) masterpiece of Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort reached the age of 300 years. It is said that this book was written by a saint under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, read by many saints, and has the task of forming more and more saints. It is correct to say so. However, it would not be appropriate not to realize that the author of the book was not only a saint but a "weighty theologian" or rather a "tremendous mariologist". It seems that the attribute of "weighty theologian" or "weighty mariologist" is a bombastic "unbelievable" claim because Montfort is not a professional theologian. Montfort, first of all, was a missionary. However, if we are serious about getting familiar with Montfort's story in True Devotion to Marythe bombastic impression disappeared by itself. This simple paper has no ambition to thoroughly explore Montfort's Mariology in the book True Devotion to Mary. We only dream to “show off” that the Montfort doctrine has adequate theological foundations.

 

1. Montfort Is A Strong Theologian

1.1 His Writings Have Solid Theological Foundations

Louis Marie Grignion better known as le père de Montfort (Father of Montfort). Those he served referred to him as the good Father of Montfort. His contemporaries did not refer to him as a theologian from Montfort or a mariologist from Montfort. However, Pope John Paul II referred to him not only as a theologian but also as a theologian. This is shown in the following quote:  : I was sure that Mary led us to Christ, but at this time I also began to understand that Christ leads us to His mother. It was a time when I began to question my devotion to Mary because I thought that if my devotion to her became too great, it might jeopardize the supremacy of worship that should have been given to Christ. At that time, I was greatly helped by the book by St. Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort entitled True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. There I found answers to my questions. Yes, Mary does bring us closer to Christ; it does lead us to Christ, on the condition that we live the mystery of Mary in Christ. St. This Louis-Marie de Montfort may be quite disturbing because of his slightly exaggerated and baroque style, but the essence of theological truth contained in it is truly undeniable. The author of this work is a qualified theologian. His Mariological thinking is rooted in the mystery of the Triune God and the truth of the Incarnation of the Word of God.[1] At first glance, the term "weighted theologian" seems an exaggerated claim because Montfort was not a professional theologian. He never claimed to be a competent person in the field of theology. His seriousness in studies is not driven by the motivation to achieve a certain level of expertise in theology or Mariology. His writings have no ambition to appear in a scientific and systematic figure. Montfort was a preacher who moved from place to place. He is a missionary. Pope Clement XI conferred on him the title apostolic missionary. Montfort's writings, therefore, reflect his fundamental vocation as a missionary.[2] Montfort who is "predicated" as a writer is identical to Montfort who is predicated as a missionary. In other words, his writings are those of a missionary, not that of a theologian. This is revealed in Montfort's own words: “I take up my pen to write what I have taught many years successfully during my missionary work, both publicly and privately” (BS 110). So, why did Pope John Paul II wear the attribute of “the theologian of weight” to Montfort? The term “weighted theologian” was applied to Montfort in connection with his masterpiece-nya True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin. Pope John Paul II called Montfort "a great theologian" after studying and living Montfort's masterpiece. Thus, the attribute of "weighty theologian" imposed on Montfort is an implicit claim contained in Montfort's writings. Although not a professional theologian, Montfort's teachings were built on theological principles he had integrated into his own life.[3] Montfort's teachings and writings have a solid theological basis.[4]  Although appearing in simple formulations, his teachings have a deep theological character.[5] Therefore François Marie Léthel said that Montfort's teachings were both popular and scientific. It is said to be popular because its teachings are not only addressed to elitists but also to small people, even the smallest of small people. It is said to be scientific because its teachings have a solid theological foundation.[6] So it is not an exaggeration to say that Pope John Paul II called him a theologian with the weight of the 1904 International MarianCongress in Rome acknowledging that the doctrines and devotions taught by Montfort were theologically sound.[7] The theological value of Montfort's teachings arose first of all from his allegiance to Divine Revelation and from how he presented it, i.e. placing it in the perspective of the history of salvation. This perspective is seen in the Love for Eternal Wisdom and True Devotion to Mary . Montfort's theology tries to reflect the work of saving the Triune God which is "Christocentric" and is developed following the dynamics of life in the Holy Spirit. The structure of his theological thinking is very clear and the language he uses is very targeted even though he has to adapt it to the level of understanding of his listeners who are ordinary people (simple, not theologians).[8] The source of Montfort's writings is primarily the Scriptures. Its theological formation was carried out under the direction of the Council of Trent. Therefore he strives for all his statements to have a biblical basis. For that, he used the Old Testament and the New Testament. JP Michaud wrote: Reading Montfort’s works carefully, one finds that they are biblical all through. He refers to Scripture constantly and in many different ways. Sometimes he studies a whole book, for example, the Book of Wisdom. Sometimes he makes systematic synthesis, on the theme of Wisdom, for example, or on the role of Mary in the economy of salvation; these syntheses belonged to biblical theology even before it was known by that name. Sometimes he comments on or paraphrases at length, specific passages, for example, Mt 16:24 in FC, Gen 27 in TD, or Psalm 67 in PM. At other times he puts forward arguments that he supports with a series of quotations, or he simply lets his prayer flow with the words of Scripture, as he frequently does with the Psalms.[9] In addition to Scripture, Montfort's doctrine is deeply rooted in the theology of the Fathers of the Western and Eastern Churches (Augustine, Ambrose, Ephrem, John Christostomus, Dionysius of Areopagitus, and so on) and o nuseveralieval Church poets (Anselm, Bernard, Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, etc.). Its doctrine is open to the influence of the great spiritualities in the Church (Benedictines, Franciscans, Dominicans, Carmelites, Jesuits, etc.). Montfort was well acquainted with a number of the great mystics and spiritual writers in the Church.[10] He is one of the heirs and best witnesses of the French School of Spirituality. According to H. Brèmond, Montfort was “the last of the great Bérullians.”[11] [11] His entire doctrine is marked by the strong emphasis on the Christ-centeredness of the French School of Spirituality and the mery of the Incarnation and Mary's place in it.[12] While he retains the main characteristics of the doctrines and teaching methods of the French School of Spirituality, he does so in uniquely and disdistinctivelys in his own way).[13]

 

1. 2 ontfort's Theological Formation is Sufficient

According to Patrick Gaffney, Montfort was a theologian in the sense that he experienced a period of solid theological study. The solid theological foundations of his works are the result of the theological formations he underwent in Paris (1693-1700) at the Seminary of Saint Sulpice and also at the Sorbonne.[14] Gaffney wrote: His readings and studies gave allowed himerify his own experiences and to broaden and deepen his knowledge and love of Our Lady. It also supplied him with theological foundations on which to build a Marian spirituality. Montfort's strong Trinitarian basis for his Marian writings, his emphasis on the centrality of the Incarnation, and his stress on Christocentric spirituality were not only in line with the spirit of Saint Sulpice but were verified for Montfort through the books he critically examined. His theological studies helped foster a healthily discerning analysis of the Marian devotion of his time and gave him great confidence when he spoke about Our Lady.[15].   . In 1692, after completing his philosophical studies at St. Thomas Beckett – Rennes, Montfort began his theological studies at the same school. But a few months later, he stopped his theological studies because he followed an offer to study theology in Paris. In Paris, Montfort lived in a community of aspiring priests founded by Fr. Claude Bottu de la Barmondière (1635-1694), a former priest in the Parish of Saint Sulpice. This community helps seminarians financially, molds them spiritually, and sends them to school at the Sorbonne. Montfort lived in this community from 1692 to 1694. After Fr. Claude Bottu's death de la barmondière Montfort moved to a community of forty poor seminarians, not far from the Sorbonne. This community was founded by Fr. François Boucher. After falling seriously ill, Montfort then moved to a "small seminary". This seminary is for seminarians who cannot afford to pay the full fee. Montfort lived in this seminary from 1695 to 1700. During his two years living in the community of La Barmondière Montfort experienced a life of regular study. He attended lectures at the Sorbonne Boudon's work, Les saintes voies de la croix was so memorable for Monfort because he was able to combine theology, spiritual and pastoral life. Besides that, Montfort also reads Letres spirituelles was so memorable for Monfort because he was able to combine theology, spiritual and pastoral life. Besides that, Montfort also reads Letres spirituelles from Surin which underscores the importance of the experience of God. After moving to Saint Sulpice's “Little Seminary” – after he fell seriously ill – Montfort no longer attended the Sorbonne, he only followed the lessons given in the community. So during his five years at Saint Sulpice's “Small Seminary”, Monfort conducted his studies in private. He reads a lot and makes notes of what he reads. He is also a librarian so he has good information about various books. Mariology and Catechism were two fields of study that caught his interest during his personal studies. He left two notebooks containing his personal study material, cand convinced the livre de Sermon (related to sermons, catechesis and conferences) and Cahier de Notes (related to Mariology). By the time he wrote True Devotion to Mary, Montfort had read almost all material Marian books in circulation he admits this in the book True Devotion to Mary 118: “I have read almost all the books on devotion to the holiest Virgin and in recent years have discussed it privately with very pious and learned people”. He read Poiré's La Triple Courrone… as well as Bernardin de Paris's La Communion de Marie… These were writers who had a deep devotional life, but their writing had a solid theological foundation. He also read “more theological” writers, such as Crasset with his book La véritable devotion…, D'Argentan with his book Conférences… and Carthagena with his book Homiliae….In addition he of course read the following authors: Grenier, spineli, Nicquet, Boissieu, Boudon, Saint-Jure, Nepveu, Bérulle, Olier, Camus, etc. It is noteworthy that tensions with Protestantism and doubts from the Yansenists contributed to Montfort's seriousness in finding an adequate theological foundation for his teachings and writings. In addition, at the end of the 17th century the polemic around Monita salutaria has not completely disappeared from memory. Therefore there is a kind of need to respond to the objections that arise, tophasize which devotions are false, to propose true devotions more clearly, convincingly and with a strong theological basis. At the end of his studies at Saint Sulpice, Montfort felt a deep desire to deepen his spiritual life, become a person who treads the path to holiness and, guides others to God. He also feels the longing to be a man of the Church, that is to say, to be a person who is totally available for urgent needs. Perhaps that is why he chose to devote himself to pastoral work among the people. Mariology becomes theological and devotional, a journey of spiritual life and the deepening of the truths of faith: Christological, Trinitarian and ecclesial truths. In fact, Montfort was not only an avid reader but also an intelligent person. This can be seen from his educational history. In 1685, aged eleven, Louis Marie was sent to St. Thomas Beckett, a school run by the Jesuits in Rennes. This school has a good reputation and accommodates a large number of students, about two thousand people. This school teaches This school has a good reputation and accommodates a large number of students, about two thousand people. This school teaches This school has a good reputation and accommodates a large number of students, about two thousand people. This school teaches the classical humanities based on the ratio studiorum 1599. Montfort began with the so-called sixième (1684-1689), then rhetoric (1689-1690) and finally philosophy (1990-1992). At St. College Thomas Beckett's Louis Marie was rated by his teachers as intelligent, studious, pious, artistically gifted and somewhat shy. He gets an award at the end of each school year. His writing skills are extraordinary. We can know this through his later writings. He can easily express his ideas in written language that is formulated very clearly and to the point point but not “crispy”; very sharp but also suggestive.  

 

Mariology of Montfort

2.1 The essence of Montfort’s Mariology

Mariology as “theological reflection on Mary, the Mother of Jesus, her position and role in God's saving work"[16] found in numbers 14-36 of the book True Devotion to Mary. Therefore TD 14-36 may be called the “theological foundation” for Montfort's teaching regarding true devotion to Mary and the perfect form of true devotion, namely self-dedication to Jesus through Mary. But the core content of Montfort's Mariology is found in TD 1:"Through the Blessed Virgin Mary, Jesus Christ has come into the world. It is through Mary that He must reign in the world.” The concepts contained in this statement are repeated by Montfort several times (e.g. in texts 13, 15, 19, 20, 22, 35, 44, 49, 50, 75, 113, 120, 156, 262)[17] thus becoming a kind of foundation or basic principle for the whole of Montfort Mariology. We see in this formulation two important things, namely: First, the reason for the existence of Mary and therefore the reason for Montfort to speak of Mary is Jesus Christ (Christocentric), precisely the reign of Christ in the world (TD 1, cf. TD 227). The reign of Christ in the world is nothing but the union and likeness of man to Christ (TD 120). It is for the sake of the kingdom of Christ through Mary that Montfort dedicated all his missionary activities including his writings.[18] Second, the essential link between Mary and Jesus Christ and the reason for Mary's role in the process of human union and likeness with Jesus Christ is the event of the Incarnation (the incarnation of God the Son into maa n). Because Jesus Christ came into the world (Incarnation) through Mary, then He also reigns or reigns in the world through Mary (TD 1).  In TD 1, we see that there is a basic agreement between the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium Gentium chapter VIII (Vatican Council II) and the teachings of Montfort. Lumen Gentium Gentium chapter VIII reflects on the “deepest reality of Mary” in the light of Scripture and Tradition, namely in her relationship with Jesus Christ.[19] This is evident in the title of Chapter VIII Lumen Gentium: "The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God in the Mystery of Christ and the Church." Mary's relationship with the Church (with the faithful) stems from her relationship with Jesus Christ in the mystery of salvation. John Paul II's testimony shows implicitly that the perspective of chapter VIII Lumen Gentium is also Montfort's perspective: Whereas previously I had held back for fear that devotion to Mary would obscure Christ rather than give him precedence, I understood with the light of Grignion's book that in truth it was entirely different. Our interior relationship to the Mother of God is the organic outgrowth of our connection to the mystery of Christ. So it is impossible that one should prevent us from seeing the other….'True devotion' to the Blessed Virgin reveals itself more and more clearly in those who advance in the mystery of Christ, the Word incarnate, and in the trinitarian mystery of salvation, which has this mystery at its center. Just as the New Testament writers never speak of Mary being isolated from Jesus Christ, neither do Montfort and Lumen Gentium chapter VIII. The reason Mary is spoken of is Jesus Christ. The talk of Mary is never isolated from Jesus Christ. Therefore, the role of Mary in the life of the Church was never isolated from Jesus Christ. Mary's special relationship with Jesus Christ in the Incarnation forms the basis for the special relationship between Mary and Jesus in the life of the Church today. Mary's Role in the Incarnation: Mother of God Montfort recognizes that Mary's fundamental role in the Incarnation is Mother of God. It was through the intervention of the Most Holy Triune God and the free consent of Mary (her fiat) that the incarnation of God the Son became human. The meeting between God's will and Mary's “yes” answer allows Mary to assume the role of Mother of God the Son.

 

2.2 2.2 Mary Becomes Mother of God Through Self-Communication of the Triune God

Three Divine Persons (God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit) have freely decided that they need Mary to play the role of the Mother of God who gave birth to Jesus Christ, the Son of God incarnate. In this collaboration between the Three Divine Persons the dignity and responsibility of Mary are perfectly respected: “God the Father has given his only begotten Son to the world through none other than through Mary. . . . God the Son became flesh for our salvation but in Mary and by Mary. God the Holy Spirit has formed Jesus Christ in Mary, having first asked this woman's approval through one of the archangels” (TD 16). The Incarnation is described by Montfort as the act of the Three Divine Persons. Each Person acts in perfect union with the other Persons, but with special actions according to the characteristics of each person so that each Person has a unique relationship with Mary. But Montfort goes further than simply describing the relationship of the Three Persons of the Triune God to Mary. Montfort "experienced" that the relationship of the Three Persons of the Triune God with Mary in the Incarnation has been continuously re-actualized in the life of the Church until now to give birth to all members of the Mystical Body of Christ (TD 22-36). Let us briefly look at the relationship of the Triune God and Mary in the Incarnation. First, is the relationship between God the Father and Mary. In TD 16 it says that "God the Father has given His only begotten Son to the world none other than through Mary". From this state, ent it becomes clear that it was God the Father who sent His Son into the world. This initiative was carried out in the way He determined: through Mary and only through Mary. He is free to act in any other way than that but in rea,lity He chooses to act that way. That was the way he chose to approach humans. He also made Mary share in His fertility, as illustrated in the following quote: He is free to act in any other way than that but in, ability He chooses to act that way. That was the way he chose to approach humans. He also made Mary share in His fertility, as illustrated in the following quote: He is free to act in any other way than that but in reality, He chooses to act that way. That was the way he chose to approach humans. He also made Mary share in His fertility, as illustrated in the following quote: “God the Father has made Mary share in His fertility as far as a pure being could afford it. He gave Mary the ability to give birth to His Son and all the members of His Mystical Body” (TD 17). In the pattern of internal relations between the Three Divine Persons, it is the Father who "begotten" the Son and in time Mary is the one who is called to give birth to Jesus Christ, the Son of God. In the Incarnation, God the Father communicated His fertility to Mary. This communication forms a unique relationship between God the Father and Mary. God's plan for the salvation of man and the world is actualized first and foremost in Mary, His beloved daughter, the first fruit of the call to partake of the divine life which was manifest in Jesus Christ. Second, is the relationship between God the Son and Mary. “God the Son became flesh for our salvation, but in Mary and through Mary” (TD 16). In other words, God the Son had chosen Mary “to be a worthy mother to Him” (TF 243). “God the Son has descended into the pure womb of Mary as the New Adam into His paradise garden” (TD 18). God the Son not only became man in and through Mary but also communicated to Mary what was characteristic of himself as the Son of God the Father, namely, his dependence on God the Father.[21] Jesus communicated Himself to Mary as the Son. In the Incarnation, the Son expresses His dependence on the Father in and through dependence on Mary because He lives in Mary, uniting with Mary through an unspeakable bond of sonship love.[22]. The dependence of Jesus on Mary according to Montfort is not understood as a dependence in the "physical" aspect but rather as a personal dependence, in the sense that Jesus fully accepts a chill dependence on his mother.[23] The Son communicates to Mary His total dependence on God. This self-communication of God the Son made it possible for Mary to become a Daughter of God the Father. In other words, God the Son communicated His sonship to Mary, and thus Mary had the same attitude in her relationship with God the Father. Third, is the relationship between God the Holy Spirit and Mary. In the Incarnation, the great work of the Holy Spirit, namely the God-Man, Jesus Christ is manifested. This masterpiece is the fruit of the collaboration of the Holy Spirit and Mary. "God the Holy Spirit has formed Jesus Christ in Mary, having first asked this woman's approval" (TD 16). The relationship between Mary and the Holy Spirit is at the level of the fellowship of love and cooperation. God the Holy Spirit communicates Himself to Mary as the Love that binds God the Father and God the Son. The Holy Spirit communicates Himself to Mary according to her uniqueness, namely manifesting the "fertility" of God the Father and the "sonance" of God the Son in the Incarnation. So Mary takes part in the work of the Holy Spirit or becomes the bride of the Holy Spirit in the incarnation of God the Son into a man. Therefore Mary participates in the life of the Holy Spirit in such a unique way.

 2.3 Mary Becomes Mother of God Through Mary's Free Consent

If on the one hand, Mary became the Mother of God because of the initiative and intervention of the Three Divine Persons, on the other hand, it was also because of the consequences of Mary's freely expressed consent to God's plan. In the book of The Love of Eternal Wisdom (LEW), Montfort writes, “It is impossible to put into words how on the one hand the Most Holy Triune God reveals Himself affectionately to this beautiful creature, and how on the other hand Mary faithfully responds. the gifts of His creator” (LEW 105) Montfort states that Divine Wisdom wants to become Man in Mary if Mary gives her consent (LEW 107). In TD 16 Montfort states, "God the Holy Spirit has formed Jesus Christ in Mary after first seeking this woman's approval through one of the archangels". Mary is a woman who – by her faith – approves of the incarnation of Divine Wisdom. While fully aware that the initiative came from God, Montfort acknowledged that God did not want to negate Mary's free answers, responsibilities, ideas, and aspirations.[24]

 2. 4 The Role of Mary in the Life of the Church

Montfort affirms that Mary's role in the life of the Church is based on her role in the Incarnation. “The pattern of action that the Three Persons of the Most Holy Trinity followed at the incarnation, namely the first coming of Jesus Christ, is still held by them every day in the Church imperceptibly. Until the end of time, when Jesus Christ lasts, They will remain faithful to the same pattern” (TD 22) From TD 22 we can articulate three implicit implications. First, Mary's role as Mother of God in the Incarnation continues today in her maternal mission to the members of the Mystical Body of Christ. Second, the relationship between the Three Persons of the Most Holy Trinity and Mary is a model of how each of the Three Divine Persons relates to us in our spiritual life. Third, the way Mary responds to self-communication from the Three Divine Persons is a model for us in responding to God's self-communication in our spiritual life. According to Montfort, the relationship between God and man described in Mary must be renewed in the life of every human being. Everyone is called to enter into such a relationship.[25] Montfort relates Mary's motherhood to the Word made flesh with her spiritual motherhood to our independence and cooperation with the Three Divine Persons as manifested in the Incarnation. Thus we find the unity and continuity of salvation history. In the Incarnation Go, the Father gave His Son to the world through Mary; even now he gives Mary the ability to give birth to all the members of His Mystical Body (TD 16, 17). In God's Incarnation the Son was born of Mary and submitted to her; now and until the end of time He continues His miracles through Mary (TD 16, 18, 19). In the Incarnation, with Mary's consent, the Holy Spirit formed Christ in Mary; now with Mary and in Mary the Holy Spirit gives life to the members of the Mystical Body of Christ (TD 16, 20, 21). For Montfort, the whole plan of salvation is carried out according to the “law of the Incarnation” and this law requires Mary's motherly presence and action. Mary's motherly presence and actions tape us into the likeness of Jesus Christ (Christocentric): “God the Father wants until the end of time to create His children through Mary” (TD 29); “God the Son wants to be made again every day and, say, incarnate in His members through His beloved Mother” (TD 31). "God the Holy Spirit wants to form the chosen people for Himself in Mary and through Mary" (TD 34). Therefore Mary received from the Three Divine Persons everything necessary to carry out her earthly mission towards us (TD 23-36). God the Father keeps all His graces even His own Son in Mary (TD 23). God the Son has deposited His rewards and virtues in Mary and clothed His members through Him (TD 24). God the Holy Spirit gave Mary unspeakable gifts and chose Mary to be the sharer of all that He had (TD 25). For Montfort Maria's spiritual motherhood was not adoptive motherhood. We can truly say that Mary gave birth to us as alter Christ. This is highly emphasized because it is seen as a consequence of the fact that Mary is the Mother of the Head members of the Mystical Body. Montfort wrote, “If the head of the human race, Jesus Christ, was born of Mary, then naturally the elect, who are members of that head, was born was a woman. It is impossible same mother can’t give head without members, nor can it be possible for members without a head” (TD 32). If Mary's spiritual motherhood was purely adoptive, it would mean that Mary, by giving birth to the Savior, (only) indirectly "gives birth" to all those saved by Jesus Christ. In fact, what is meant by spiritual motherhood by Montfort is that Mary is personally and completely involved in her motherhood, cooperating with the Three Divine Persons in order to regenerate us into the likeness of Christ.[26]

[1] Paus Yohanes Paulus II, Kurnia dan Misteri, Jakarta: Obor, 1997, p. 32; cf. Giovanni Paolo II, Dono e mistero, Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1996, p. 37
[2] Patrick Gaffney, S.M.M., “Mary” dalam Stefano De Fiores, S.M.M., – Patrick Gaffney, S.M.M., (ed.), Jesus Living in Mary: Handbook of the Spirituality of St. Louis Marie de Montfort, Bayshore, NY: Montfort Publications, 1994, p. 690-691.
[3] Ibid., p. 690.
[4] François Marie Léthel, O.C.D., “San Luigi Maria di Montfort dottore dell’amore di Gesù in Maria” dalam Battista Cortinovis, S.M.M., (ed.), Spiritualità Montfrotana 2, Rome: Centre International Monfortain, 2003, p. 6.
[5] “San Luigi Maria di Montfort nella Chiesa di oggi e di domani”  dalam Battista Cortinovis, S.M.M., (ed.), Spiritualità Montfortana 1,Rome: Centre International Montfortain, 2003, p. 18.
[6] Franҫois-Marie Léthel, O.C.D., “San Luigi Maria di Montfort dottore dell’amore di Gesù in Maria” Op. cit., p. 18
[7] “San Luigi Maria di Montfort nella Chiesa di oggi e di domani”, op. cit. p. 10.
[8] Ibid., p. 19-20.
[9] J. P. Michaud, “Bible”, dalam Stefano De Fiores, S.M.M.,  – Patrick Gaffney, S.M.M., (ed.), Jesus Living in Mary: Handbook of the Spirituality of St. Louis Marie de Montfort, Bayshore, NY: Montfort Publications, 1994, p. 112-113.
[10] Franҫois-Marie Léthel, O.C.D., “San Luigi Maria di Montfort dottore dell’amore di Gesù in Maria”, op. cit., p. 17.
[11] R. Deville, “The French School of Spirituality”, in Stefano De Fiores, S.M.M.,  – Patrick Gaffney, S.M.M., (ed.), Jesus Living in Mary: Handbook of the Spirituality of  St. Louis Marie de Montfort, Bayshore, NY: Montfort Publications, 1994, p. 437.
[12] Ibid.
[13] Ibid.
[14] Franҫois-Marie Léthel, O.C.D., “San Luigi Maria di Montfort dottore dell’amore di Gesù in Maria”, op. cit., p. 16.
[15] Patrick Gaffney, S.M.M.,  “Mary”, op. cit., p. 695.
[16] C. Groenen, Mariologi, Teologi dan Devosi, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1988, p. 13.
[17] Battista Cortinovis, Montfort Pilgrim in the Church, Rome: Missionari Montfortani, 1997, p. 119
[18] J.M. Hupperts, Pour elle, Série Immaculata 5, Secretariat Marie-Médiatrice, Louvain 1957, p 24.
[19] Alphonse Bossard, S.M.M.,”True Devotion”, dalam Stefano De Fiores, S.M.M.,  – Patrick Gaffney, S.M.M., (ed.), Jesus Living in Mary: Handbook of the Spirituality of St. Louis Marie de Montfort, Bayshore, NY: Montfort Publications, 1994, p. 1224.
[20] André Frossard, “Be Not Afraid!” Pope John Paul II Speaks Out on His Life, His Beliefs and His Inspiring Vision for Humanity, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1982,  p. 124-27.
[21] Patrick Gaffney, “Mary” Op. cit., p. 701.
[22] Ibid., p. 702.
[23] Alphonse Bossard, “Incarnation” dalam Sfano De Fiores, (general editor), Jesus Living in Mary, Bay Shore, NY: Montfort Publications, 1994, p. 546.
[24] Wiel Logister, “God” dalam Sfano De Fiores, (general editor), Jesus Living in Mary, Bay Shore, NY: Montfort Publications, 1994, p. 473-475
[25] Wiel Logister, op. cit., p. 473-475.
[26] Patrick Gaffney, “Mary”, op. cit., p. 715.  

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