Fidel Wotan, SMM
Talks or discourses about "devotion" essentially cannot be separated from the context of people's lives, for example with culture, tradition, etc. Generally what is understood when speaking of “people's devotion” is a collection of prayers or practices that originate from a particular personal initiative and are not accepted as an integral part of the official liturgy of the Church. There are so many devotions that appear in the practice of the Church's life (read: from the first centuries to the present), but of all these devotions, there are various devotions that have been recommended and advocated by the Holy See such as the Rosary, Angelus, Litany, Procession, Way of the Cross, May devotions, etc. It is said that in later journeys, there were devotions accepted by the Church as liturgies such as the Feast of the Holy Rosary (October 7). Nevertheless
The theme that will be explored in this paper is an interesting material because devotion is seen as a means, a way to live religion and achieve experience (experiencing the divine) with the sacred as said by YB Haryono (hereinafter referred to as Haryono):
“… many people view devotion as a way of living their religion. With devotion, they can achieve the experience of oneness with the divine and the void and even experience miracles of healing and so on. They become happy, confident, humble, more free, secure, and loving. While others view this devotional practice cynically. They see it as a form of idols, superstition, and seek amulets. Others view it as primitive and boring. Still, others view it as unreasonable. Still, others use it for their own benefit.”
This paper is not intended to examine in detail and in full the history, origins of devotion in the Catholic Church and also not to aim at making an in-depth analysis of devotion, but is intended to explain simply abortion devotion in the Catholic faith tradition and its application by asking questions: “ why do Catholics devote to Mary, what is special about Mary”, what is the essence and meaning of being devoted to Mary, etc. In this regard, the discourse on this theme is certainly in touch with several aspects, such as the liturgical, ecclesiastical, cultural, and anthropological dimensions, etc.
- MEANING AND MEANING OF “DEVOTION”
According to E. Martasudjita, the term "devotion" comes from the Latin word devovere which is often used in a reflexive form that means to submit to oneself. The word "devotion" can be interpreted as an interior attitude and practice of piety in which man submits himself before God. In the Christian tradition, this term is a form of belief and expression of faith outside the official liturgy.
Tostain said that this term is associated with two main attitudes. The first is the inner attitude that is directed to serve God. He wrote: “Au sens premiere, devotion = ardeur server Dieu.” So, it is closely related to the "inner disposition" which is attuned to the will and the soul. He said that this inner attitude then appears in real action, but the most important thing is what he calls "an interior disposition". This act (devotion) appears in faith and has its source in “acts of love” and is often identifiable. Second, the meaning of the word devotion is associated with practical actions. He said that devotion first and foremost involves an "external act of devotion". However, it has become customary to use the term “dévotion” (or “special” devotions – dévotion «particuliere»), a set of religious acts proposed or at least endorsed by the Church, inspired by a specific object. According to him, devotion is nothing but a spiritual attraction, an attachment both to the object of worship and to the act or “practice” that expresses it”.
The meaning of the term can also be taken from the statement from the Congregation for the Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy, Principles, and Guidelines) in its document on devotion and liturgy which talks about popular piety. The term devotion means various external habits. Such external customs include prayers, hymns,s and customs associated with a particular time or place, banners, medals, clothing, or customs that are imbued with an attitude of faith and express the believer's special relationship to the Trinity, Saint Mar,y and the saints. The Congregation for Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments wrote:
“In the present context, this term is used to describe various external practices (eg prayers, hymns, observations attached to particular times or places, insignia, medals, habits or customs). Animated by an attitude of faith, such external practices manifest the particular relationship of the faithful with the Divine Persons, or the Blessed Virgin Mary in her privileges of grace and those of her titles which express them, or with the Saints in their configuration with Christ or their role in the Church's life”.
The expression of faith in the form of an external habit can be directed to the Virgin Mary in devotional practice. The reverence for Mary that is lived in devotion is a distinctive expression of faith. According to M. Riquet, this can be a source of religious strength which in certain respects supports religious life. Consequently, this respect needs to be supported, but at the same time,t requires a critical reflection so that respect for Mary makes a very valuable contribution to the development of the faith of each individual as well as the communal life of faith in the Church.
Talking about devotion to Mary means talking about how to understand and actualize the cult of Mary (worship/reverence to Mary). According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term "cult" has several meanings: First, as a noun, it means "a system of religious worship expressed in rituals". Second, is "a great admiration, love or concern for something personally". Through this understanding, it can be said that actually "cult" is closely related to God's saving act, a form of expression of love (a gesture of love). In this regard, the Montfortan theologian and mariologist Stefano de Fiorsayays that he t veneration of Mary is a cultic response to the special mission God has given her and that worse hip inserted in the Love of God in no way replaces the worship of the Triune God. In fact with this idea, De Fiores emphasizes that what is called "piety" in the form of reverence for the Virgin Mary is subordinate to the form of worship of the Savior.
In the Christian theological tradition, several distinctive terms appear which are used to distinguish a form of respect for the saints, the Virgin Mary, or worship of God. It is said that because the Mother of Jesus was the holiest of all saints, according to C. Groenen, the special term used in honoring Mary, namely hyper-douleia, means "super-devotional". Meanwhile, a service devoted to a human being (a saint) is called a douleia. Furthermore, worship that is only given specifically to God is called "latreia" (Latin: adoration).
After we look at the meaning and meaning of the word "devotion" and its application in the practice of piety of the people, the following will explain some forms of the devotion of the people in variant terminology.
1.1. Various Forms of People's Devotion and Their Meanings
In several publications or writings about devotion, several other designations or terms appear that have certain meanings and meanings. These terms have close meanings to one another, however, the meanings of each cannot be simply confused. Some of the terms referred to are pious exercises, popular devotions, popular piety, and popular religiosity. These five terms are often understood as something close in meaning. As is well known these terms are one of the signs of the Church's times today.
About these terms – as will be seen later in the Directory – there are h documents that allude to and speak of one of these terms. The document of the Second Vatican Council on the Liturgy of the Church, Sacrosanctum Concilium (1963) and the document of John Paul II, Ecclesia in Asia (1999) used their devotionswhile the Theological Commission of the Federation of Asian Bishops Conferences (FABC) through The Spirit at Work in Asia Today uses the term popular religiosity.
To better understand the meaning of each of these terms, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments explains the different meanings between them; pious exercises, devotions, popular piety, and popular religiosity. In the Direy no. 7, it is said, that pious exercises refer to the individual and collective expressions of Christian piety which, although not part of the liturgy, is realized in harmony with the spirit, norms, and rhythm of the liturgyMeanwhile, the term devotionsares explained as previously described. This term, devotionsares used to describe various external practices such as prayer, hymns, visiting certain places and certain times, medals, customs, and customs.Furthermore, the term popular piety is used to describe various cultic expressions of personal and community nature which in the context of The Christian faith are generally not inspired by the sacred liturgy, but are forms that arise from a particular nation or society from their culture.. Furthermore, the last term that appears is popular religiosity (religiosity of the people). This terminology is used by the Directory to refer to the so-called universal experience. It is said that this religious dimension acts in the hearts of the people, and the nation, and it is a collective expression or expression of their group. In this sense, they want to express their comprehensive view of the transcendent, their view of nature, society, and history in a cultic vehicle. One of the interesting things here is that this view does not always refer to Christian revelation.
What is explained about popular religiosity or the religiosity of the people (read: the people) according to Haryono is essentially a set of values which with Christian wisdom answer big questions about existenceAccording to Haryono's study of the Puebla Document (1979), this so-called "wisdom" in the life of the Catholic Church can create a synthesis of life between the human and the divine. He wrote: “He combines the divine and the human, Christ and Mary, spirit and body, fellowship and institution, person and fellowship, faith and homeland, reason and feeling". He further said that this "wisdom" is nothing but a Christi humanism which shows an acknowledgment of the dignity of each person as a son and daughter of God who in his consciousness as a human being knows to respect God's other creations. He wrote:
“This wisdom is also for the people a basic principle to be able to discriminate, as well as a conscience that is supported by the Bible. On that basis, he understands spontaneously whether the gospel is served in the Church or is being undermined or stifled by other interests".
About the awareness of the existence of the piety practices above, Haryono reflected that the Church also pays attention to forms of people's piety and people's religiosity. This has happened since time immemorial, what is called the spirit of the religious life of Christians, which is manifested in the various forms of piety that accompany the life of the Church. Some of the forms he intended, for example, veneration of relics, visits to holy places, pilgrimages, and processions, way of the cross, religious dances, the Rosary, and medalsWe follow the explanation that continues: “The devotion that has been practiced sincerely and with a heart-touching spirit has made a great contribution to the Church".
I.2. People's Devotion And Its Disclosure
Haryono explained that – as the Asian Bishops have also pointed out – devotion can be understood as a series of prayers, various forms of practice, and expressionHowever, as previously explained by Costain, the most important element in devotion is what is called an inner expression which is closely related to self-expression in faith in the Divine.
If traced properly, two elements appear in a "devotion", namely an outward element and an inward element. In other words, there is an external devotion and an internal devotionThese two sides, the outer and the inner cannot be separated. What is inward always supports the outward. In short, this means that the internal attitude of the mind must be the foundation of devotion. Haryono said that the devotion that is carried out should lead a person to a deep surrender and complete devotion to God. Quoting the views of Bernard Raas, Haryono explained several definitions of people's devotions: “the various names of prayers and practices that were originally a personal initiative and were later accepted by the Church. Some of them are indeed recommended and approved by ecclesiastical authorities".
According to Haryono, there are e various devotions that are practiced in people's lives. That is to say that there have been a large number of forms of devotional prayer throughout the ages. Haryono wrote:
“By saying the various names, we want to show that there have been a large number of forms of prayer throughout the ages. Some have been lost in the past, some have emerged and are still being practiced today, and some are emerging in the present. The variety of devotions can take the form of prayers and practices. Devotions that emphasize more on the prayers recited, for example, the Novena of Perpetual Help. Devotions that emphasize outward practices to show an attitude of inner devotion such as pilgrimages, the way of the cross, wearing medals”..
Historically, these devotions started from a long process. Therefore, in his opinion, it is very important to do research, namely, to examine the founder and history of the devotion to providing a correct understanding of it. However, it must be realized that the person who discovers the devotion is sometimes unknown. I quote his statement: “… we get the impression that what matters is no longer the inventors but the devotion that they recommend and promote".
According to Haryono, because these devotions come from "personal initiatives, devotions are not legally obligatory for all Catholics". He saw that the ecclesiastical authorities had the right and the duty to wisely examine these various devotions. He wrote:
“They must check, approve and recommend if it is good, modify and correct if it is too one-sided or one-sided, or prohibit if it is wrong. Church authorities recommend and promote devotion in a variety of ways. One of them is by attaching indulgences to certain prayers and practices".
The devotions that live and thrive in the devotional practice of the faithful cannot be traced directly to the ministry of Jesus and the practice of the apostles. It is said that devotion generally develops slowly, gradually, and through a long process. The somewhat ancient origins of the devotion even tend to be a little blurry. Some devotions such as the Rosary and the Scapular come from the religious practices of certain ordersOther practices such as Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Miraculous Medal have their origins in personal revelation, namely a vision or message given to one of the faithfulIn addition, it can still be shown here, for example, devotion to Mary as Mater Dolorosa (Mother of Sorrows). According to Maggioni, this devotion developed in Europe sisince2tthe h century as described in the writings of some such as Eadmore, St. Bernardus, Guerrico d'Igny, Amadeus of Lausanne, etc. Later this devotion was spread by the Cistercian monks and OSM (Servi di Maria/Servants of Mary). In the 13th century, this devotion was expressed in various artistic forms, various miniatures, frescoes (frescoes), and literary compositions..
As is well known, that “devotion” whether directed to one of the saints or the Virgin Mary is an important force in the Christian faith. The role of a donation in the faith of the people usually appears in situations of crisis, even when the Catholic Church loses its teaching power and role in people's lives. The faith of the people in this situation will usually survive because they have a certain devotion. InThisevotion becomes an expression of faith that is expressed simply in the lives of simple peopleAs a result, it generates an emotional and social need for them. This devotional practice survives precisely because it is seen as a religious force that lives in their daily lives. Sometimes “theologians” have a negative view of a tradition because it is considered full of “myth and magic”, which contains traditional practices. Nevertheless, it must be realized that "devotion" has and will always play an important role in expressing the faith of the people, in accordance’s belief: lex orandi lex credenda (the way the Church prays, so is faith or the liturgy that leads to theology). That is, the rule of prayer becomes the rule of faith.
- SERVICE TO MAIA IS THE BEST AND MOST HOLY DEVOTION
Pope John Paul II (1978-2005) in his Encyclical Redemptoris Mater (1987) referred to Saint Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort (hereinafter Montfort) as “Witness and Teacher of the Spirituality of Mary". Montfort's struggle to introduce the devotion to Maria that he taught deserves appreciationThrough the devotion he teaches, we are all brought to a reflection with him that there is no other devotion that is most good and sanctifying than the devotion he taught Christians. According to Montfort's argument, devotion to the Virgin Mary is the best and molest devotion and is abcan people away from sin. This devotion, too, is for Montfort the most perfect.. Alasan utamanya ialah Bunda Maria adalah pribadi yang paling sempurna dan paling suci dari segala makhluk. Jadi, jikalau seseorang memilih devosi kepada Maria sebagai praktik yang sempurna dan menyucikan, maka hal itu justru terjadi karena ”kesucian dan keunggulan Maria” dari segala makhlukAccording to Montfort, this practice was apt very well known in his day. He said that only a few pious people know about it and only a few people practice it.
The devotion to the Virgin Mary taught by Montfort can also be called a form of "self-emptying" practice. According to him, tno devotion is more "emptying itself" before God than the devotion that he teaches and encourages. Montfort said:
“I have read almost all the books on devotion to the holiest Virgin… Now I state and emphasize: I have never known any other practice of devotion to the hoHolyirgin which can be compared to the devotion I am about to describe. No devotion demands from a human being so many sacrifices for God, which empties itself more and takes away self-love….: no devotion unites men more or perfectly and more easily with Jesus Christ; in short, the service glorified more, purifies humans mod, benefits others more.”
This devotion is seen as a way or means that can lead people to experience self-emptying. The self-emptying he means is directly related to the context of self-purification or the path to holiness, namely to unite with Jesus and become like HimHe wrote:
“to empty ourselves … we must choose among all the devotions of the holiest Virgin the devotion that most leads us to die to self; for that devotion is the best and the most sacred. Let us not think that all that glitters is gold. Not everything that tastes sweet is honey. Not everything that is easy and what most people do is the most appropriate to lead us to holiness… Likewise in the system of grace, there are also secrets that in a short time flexibly and easily make it possible to carry out supernatural activities: emptying oneself, filling oneself with Alla,h and attaining perfection.”
Montfort recommends that people surrender all of themselves to Mary through an act of “Self-dedication”The essence of the practice of "Dedication" to Jesus through the hands of Mary is the total surrender of one's self to Christ. Montfort writes, “this devotion consists in a complete surrender to the most holy Virgin so that through her she may become the complete possession of Jesus Christ".
The surrender meant by Montfort was to give all possessions to Mary, both physical and spiritual. So, Montfort taught that if a person is devoted to Mary, then he is asked to surrender himself to Mary's hands (all members of his body, soul, physical possessions, all works of charity, etc.,). He wrote:
“We have to give him: 1) Our body and all its senses and limbs; 2) Our soul with all its capabilities; 3) Our physical possessions, meaning our worldly possessions, both now and in the future; 4) Our inner and spiritual treasures, namely the rewards of our virtues and charitable works from the past, present and future. In short, we must give Mary all that we have … and all that we shall then still have.”
The purpose of Montfort writing the four things above is to underline the totality of surrender to God through the hands of Mary. So, devotion to Mary must ultimately lead people to unite and become like Jesus Christ. That is the goal of total surrender to Mary: “to become wholly belong to Jesus Christ, to attain union with Christ and to be conformed to him”. Through this practice of surrender, one is invited to “empty” oneself into Mary and allow oneself to “drown” in it.
The devotion to Mary that Montfort taught was profound, and very Christocentric. What is being said here is so strong and ingrained in him that Montfort says aloud: “if devotion to Mary were to keep us from Jesus, we must throw it away as a trick of the devil.”
Through the devotion given, spoken to Mary, one is enabled to enter into such a deep relationship, a union that is so deeply rooted further and directly with Jesus, the Incarnate Wisdom. From this, it can be understood that if someone removes Mary from the history of salvation and that means negates her (denies her) from the stage of her Christian life, then that is the same as negating the plan of salvation as stated by Montfort himself.
For Montfort, fully believing in this reality and living it deeply is called “Devotion to Eternal Wisdom Incarnate. Loving and free surrender to God's plan will renew us in the Holy Spirit so that we can accomplish and accomplish great things for God's sake and the salvation of souls".
- MARIAN DEVOTION IN VIEW OF THE CHURCH MAGISTERIUM
As it is known that the Catholic Church – dealing with the devotional practices of the people – provides a theologically correct understanding of the meaning and purpose of devotion. Thus, the Church through its official documents provides enlightenment in the form of a correct understanding of devotion, its meaning, and purpose. In the light of the Constitution Lumen Gentium (1967), three important points can be underlined regarding the purpose of holding a devotion. Three goals can be raised there; first, imitating their life examples (cf. 1 Cor 11:1). Second, enjoy being together in the “community of the saints”, that is, those who believe in the existence of heaven and earth (cf. Eph 3:15; Heb 12:1). Third, ask for their intercession for our physical, mental, and spiritual needs (cf. 2 Mack. 15:12-16; Ps. 106:23).
3.1. Devotion to Mary in the Light of the Second Vatican Council
3.1.1. In the Light of Sacrosanctum Concilium (1963)
The Sacrosanctum Concilium (SC) was the first Constitution produced during the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). On December 4, 1965, Pope Paul VI promulgated this document. This document speaks of the renewal of the “liturgy” and the Council Fathers asserted that through the liturgy this “redemption” was fulfilledAccording to this document, every liturgical celebration is an act of Christ the Priest and His Body, namely the Church.
Through the liturgical celebration, the divine and the human unite. That is why through this celebration, the so-called “honor to the Mother of God in the liturgy of the Church” – according to theologian Salvatore M. Perrella – stems from a Revelation and various secular experiences of the Christian community.
The Council Fathers knew that the devotions of the people in the life of the Church could not be negated and they had urged pastors and preachers to promote them. In the light of Sacrosanctum Concilium n. 7, Maggioni describes that the liturgy is a light for non-liturgical piety (people). In short, the liturgy illuminates the scope and meaning of non-liturgical piety. He wrote: “Il primato della liturgia, dunque, luce che rischiara la portata e il senso della pietà non liturgica”. These advantages can be seen in articles 7 and 13 of SC. Article 13 can be seen in the affirmation of the Constitution regarding the nature or nature of the liturgy which transcends pious exercises).
According to this liturgical expert, popular piety cannot replace liturgy. It is precisely the liturgical actions that determine and increase the vitality of the Church. He wrote:
“Le azioni liturgiche costituiscono e incrementano la vitalità della Chiesa: pur nelle variazioni rituali occorse nei secoli e nella diversa tradizione delle Famiglie liturgiche d’Oriente e Occidente, la sostanza della liturgia è rimasta invariata” (Tindakan liturgis membentuk dan meningkatkan vitalitas Gereja: walaupun dalam variasi ritual yang terjadi selama berabad-abad dan dalam tradisi yang berbeda dari tradisi rumpun liturgi Timur dan Barat, substansi liturgi tetap tidak berubah).
Through this idea, Maggioni emphasized that the substance of the liturgy can never be changed or irreplaceable. In other words, the celebration of the Eucharist which was celebrated from the beginning in the Apostolic Community to the present day in the Church does not change its substance at all.
If we want to compare the liturgy and the piety of the people, it appears that there is a striking difference between them. It is said that the lit is more important than popular piety. This means that the piety of the people has a place and position behind the liturgy (subordinated). Liturgy is also important to throw in Christ and the Church that the role and position of popular piety become somional. In other words, according to Maggioni, the liturgy is the main thing (la liturgia necessaria), while the piety of the people (pietà popolare/popular piety) is facultative even if it is recommended (la pieta popolare appartiene al facoltativo, pur se raccomandata).
Based on the light of the document, we can say that in fact what is called popular piety is less important than the liturgy. However, this does not mean that it should be ruled out, but rather the act of piety of the people on the other hand is felt to be useful to see how far the faith of the people lives and grows in the practice of their life as Christians. Maggioni asserts that "popular piety" in a certain sense has important values and meanings, even clergy or religious need it in certain situations and conditions.
3.1.2. In the Light of Lumen Gentium (1964)
On November 21, 1964, the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium (LG) was signed by the Council Fathers. In chapter VIII, this document talks specifically about “Mary, Mother of God in the mystery of Christ and the Church”. This chapter is even called the Magna chartaof Mariology because the Council had never previously spoken much about Mary. The entirety of Vatican II Mariology can be understood or summarized in the famous chapter VIII of the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium. According to Ermanno Toniolo, the main and most important text of the Mariology teaching of the Catholic Church for two thousand years can be seen in this chapter.
The importance of this text for Mariology is also underlined by several eminent theologians and mariologists such as Stefano de Fiores (+ 2012), Angelo Amato, Salvatore M. Perrella, etc. Salvatore M. Perrella, a theologian from the theological faculty, Marianum-Roma, said that chapter VIII Lumen Gentium is more authoritative (read: authoritative) and is a summary of Catholic teachings about MaryIn other words, the chapter has a very strong and more authoritative mMariandimension.
As the title suggests, Lumen Gentium chapter VIII is a discussion text (debate) of two schools: those who see Mary's position as above the Church and those who see Mary in relation to the Church. Through a process of struggle, a long discussion on this matter (Mary's position: analogous/harmonious with Christ and his relation to the Church), the Council wanted to show a new horizon on Mariology. Regarding the content of Marian's ecclesiological cult (read: devotional), De Fiores writes:
“La mariologia della controriforma tridentina tende a rivendicare l’onore della Vergine di fronte ai dubbi sollevati dai protestanti. Contro il tentativo di ridurre Maria a una semplice credente, i cattolici vedono la glorificazione della Madre di Cristo nei privilegi a lei concessi a causa della sua unione col Figlio. Anche il culto della Vergine ha assunto talora tinte intimiste e individualistiche. Negli ultimi decenni il movimento ecclesiologico si esprime in senso opposto: Maria deve essere situata nella Chiesa, nella comunione dei santi, quale umile fedele come nella comunità primitiva, in contesto di partecipazione e di funzionalità, non di privilegio e di isolamento. In altre parole, Maria non è in ordine intermedio tra Cristo e la Chiesa, ma nella Chiesa come inizio e presenza materna e salvificaThe Tridentine Counter-Reformation Mariologists tend to emphasize the honor of the Virgin in the face of the doubts raised by Protestants. In the face of attempts to reduce Mary to a simple believer, Catholics see the glorification of the Mother of Christ precisely in the privileges conferred upon her by her union with the Son. Even the services of the Virgin sometimes have an intimate and individualistic color. In recent decades, the ecclesiological movement has appeared in the opposite direction: Mary must be in the Church, in the communion of the saints, a humble believer in the early community, in the context of participation and functionality, not as a privileged and isolated [person]. In other words, Mary is not in a position between Christ and the Church,but [present] in the Church as first and [as] mother and saver).
In the end, the Council stated that Mary was not seen as an isolating person (cristotipica) as pre-conciliar theology underlined, but instead was perceived as a figure who had a strong union or relationship with Christians. In this regard, Mary was seen by the Council Fathers as a member of the Church (ecclesiotipica).
The Council underscores the importance of the figure of Mary to the Church. This is then described specifically in chapter VIII Lumen Gentium precisely in two important numbers, namely no. 66 and 67. In number 66, the first paragraph of the Council speaks of a “special cult” (the special cult). The Council Fathers wrote:
“Placed by the grace of God, as God’s Mother, next to her Son, and exalted above all angels and men, Mary intervened in the mysteries of Christ and is justly honored by a special cult in the Church. Clearly from earliest times the Blessed Virgin is honored under the title of Mother of God, under whose protection the faithful took refuge in all their dangers and necessities…” and man, as the most holy Mother of God, who is present in the mysteries of Christ; and she should be honored by the Church with special devotion. Indeed, since ancient times the Blessed Virgin has been honored with the title "Mother of God"; and in all dangers and needs they …).
This cult (service) is devoted by the Church to honor the Mother of God. According to Maggioni, Mary was glorified after her son surpassed angels and men by the grace of God and even because she was the Mother of God who had partaken in the mysteries of Christ. This is the reason why this cult was directed at him in particular. The Church devotes special services to Mary because she is a saint. The cult given to him is a form of respect that is so special and very different from the cult that is directed at the Triune God. The reason is that "worship" is only given to the Triune God and Mary only a "veneration" (veneration-hyperdulia). In this regard, it is said that the Marian cult was not born later, but has been lived in the Christian Community since the beginning. In the New Testament, we can find several indications or symptoms of Marian’s devotion that show a stretch or form of reverence for Mary (cf. Lk 1,42.45; 11.27). Furthermore, this Marialis Cultus expanded tremendously to the Council of Ephesus (430), where the Council Fathers at that time said:
“… after the Synod of Ephesus the cult of the people of God toward Mary wonderfully increased in veneration and love, in invocation and imitation, according to her own prophetic words: «All generations shall call me blessed, because He that is mighty hath done great things to me» (Luke 1.48)” (…since the Council of Ephesus, the devotion of the People of God to Mary has increased admirably, in reverence and love, by calling on her name and imitating her example according to her prophetic expression, “All descendants will call me blessed because the Almighty has done great works for me” [Luke 1:48]).
This Marian cult is practiced because Mary has a divine motherly dimension (her divine maternity) and it has been known, lived in the life of the Church since the most ancient times (fin dai tempi più antichiMarian cult (Marian service) – as the Council says in no. 66 – contains four (4) adjectives: veneration, love, invocation, and imitation. In other words, if we talk about the devotion of the People of God to Mary, then these four qualifications should be reminded and should be appropriated (integrated)into the Christian life. The element of “respect” (veneration) is combined with the dimension of “love, especially with the attitude of a child towards a mother. In this context, respect for Mary is always lived in the spirit of affection for her. According to Maggioni, the "invocation" of Mary's name as Mother of God is followed by imitation of her virtues. It means that everyone who wishes to appeal to MMar should imitate, and imitate the virtues of Mary. From this, is it can be underlined that devotion to Mary – in this context – cannot be separated from the four qualifications mentioned above. That is why Marian devotion is not essentially a form of devotion, respect which is characterized by mere outward actions, but mainly direct contact with an intimate relationship with Mary which is manifested in an inward attitude directed towards her (receiving her intimately) so that she too can live in the world. within us.. Regarding this, Maggioni said that devotion to Mary in the economy of salvation is not primarily about external things, but rather about accepting Mary's presence intimately while allowing her to live in the existence of everyday life.
What the Council Fathers said in LG n. 66 about the four characteristics; veneration, love, invocation, and imitation of Mary are driven by God's actions for each person in their respective lives. This service is not only felt and experienced by certain people but all descendants of Adam. That is why Mary in her Song of Praise (Magnificat) directs her homage to Allah.
In light of no. 66, the liturgical expert Maggioni understands that there is a difference between Marian worship (cult) and worship of God. It is explained that devotion to Mary is something fundamental, as is worshiping the f God. In this context, it can be concluded that Mary was actually an ordinary human being like other humans and it clearly shows that she is not a God. Therefore, respect for him is not a form of worship that is required of Allah. In short, the cult of mariaMarianot is quoted with the cult that should be given to God. Maggioni wrote:
“Maria non è Dio, la sua venerazione non è come l’adorazione dovuta a Dio; tuttavia, il culto mariano non si colloca parallelamente al culto che ha Dio per fonte e destinatario, ma “dentro” l’attaggiamento cultuale che vincola l’uomo a Dio, ed ha il preciso scopo di promuoverlo, ossia di condurre ad offrire a Dio il culto che egli gradisce. In tal senso, il culto mariano è da interpretare nell’alveo del culto proprio della Chiesa di Cristo, giacché è ordinato e orientato a Dio" (Mary is not God, her reverence is not like the worship required of God; however, Marian's worship is not parallel to the worship (worship) that God has, but "in" the attraction of worship which binds man to God, and has a special purpose to promote it, that is, lead to an offer to God, worship that pleases her. In this sense, Mary's worship must be interpreted in terms of the proper service of the Church of Christ, because she is sanctified and oriented to God ".
From the explanation above, it can also be said that respect for Mary should be actualized by placing the Gospel properly and correctly in the practice of daily life. That means the essence of devotion, whether it is good or right or wrong, must be an evaluation material that must be carefully observed in the reality of the people's faith.
In addition to number 66, the cult of Marian (worship to Mary) can also be found in number 67. The lengthy excerpt of this article can be seen for yourself in the document. In this number, the Council Fathers spoke of the pastoral norms. Three important elements can be underlined in this number. The first section deals with the Church's recommendations for Pastors and the laity. This recommendation is further divided into three parts: first, it speaks specifically of “worship to the Blessed Virgin, especially of a liturgical nature” (especially the liturgical cult, of the Blessed Virgin). Second, speaking of “appreciation of the practices and experiences of devotion to him, which throughout the ages have been advocated by the teaching authority of the Church” (the admonition to have the practices of piety and the pious Marian exercise is recommended over the centuries by the Magisterium). Third, talk about observations about ecclesiastical traditions around holy images. Furthermore, the second part deals with the exhortation to theologians and proclaimers of the Word of God that in seeing the special dignity of the Mother of God, they also earnestly refrain from all exaggerated and false expressions as well pettiness of the mind. The third part talks about recommendations or exhortations for the faithful to develop true devotion to Mary.
Through the above understanding, true devotion to Mary will enable the faithful to understand and realize two important aspects, namely recognizing the superiority (read: special) of Mary and being led to an expression of a child's love for Mary while imitating her virtues.
3.2. Devotion to Mary in the Light of the Post Council Magisterium
Pope Paul VI's Marian documents, especially the Apostolic Exhortations Signum magnum (BC) and Marialis cultus (SC) were of great importance to the post-Council marialis cultus. The two documents are interconnected with the teachings of the Council on Mary and the Pope seeks to revitalize the marian cult in the light of Scripture, then link it strongly with the liturgical worship of the Church.Pope Paul VI has always expressed his marMarianety (devotion) and his desire to see its fruits in the hearts of Christians – precisely in a period of great crisis in the field of Mariology for the Church and theologyAll of this can be seen in some of his apostolic exhortations, speeches, and also in the Angelus Domini (Angel of the Lord) and the Holy Rosary.
3.2.1 In the Light of the Signum Magnum (1967)
According to A. Amato, Pope Paul VI – after seeing the great crisis in the field of Mariology (crisis of the Marian dimension) in the life of the Church (il silenzio su Maria, 1965-1974) – began to take a new start by proclaiming the Marian theme in three dedicated documents. to the Holy Rosary. These include the Encyclicals Mense maio (1965), Christi matri (1966) and the Apostolic Exhortation Recurrens mensis (1969)The same theme (the marian theme) can also be found in two other Apostolic Exhortations namely, Signum magnum (1967) and Marialis cultus (1974).
The Apostolic Exhortation Signum magnum speaks of Mary's spiritual motherhood. This document addresses the growing pastoral concern regarding Marian's devotion. Devotion to Mary is consistent with liturgical reform. The Signum magnum repeats the Lumen Gentium quote and expands on the teaching about Mary, Mother of the Church. What is especially emphasized is Mary's presence as a mother and an active role model that is worthy of emulation, “To Jesus Through Mary.”
This theme is very extensively discussed in Lumen Gentium. The Signum magnum also describes the human duties that were redeemed for Mary, she is seen as the Mother of the Church. In the first part, the Pope emphasizes Mary as the Mother of the Church and this is not because of her association or communion with Christ in the economy of salvation, but because of her refuge come Modello di virtù davanti a Tutta la comunità degli eletti (she shines as a model of virtue before all elect community).
Many aspects can be drawn from this Apostolic Exhortation and one of the important elements that should be underlined from this document is "the relationship between the holiness of Mary and her spiritual motherhood". It is said that Mary's holiness is in harmony with Christ and she is seen as a model for the spiritual life of Christians. In this context, the Pope emphasized that Mary is the model of all virtues for Christians. He said that Mary is present not only as the Mother of JesusChristt but also as a model of virtue before Christians. From Heaven, he continues to function as a cooperative in the birth and development of the divine life in the souls of redeemed mankind. For the Pope, this is a very comforting truth.
Another important aspect of the Signum magnum is “the presence of Mary as a servant of God (ancella del Signore). The Pope described that Mary's role as ancella del Signore was revealed throughout her life, where she truly showed herself as a “servant of God” from the events of the “Annunciation” to the “rapture of her body and soul to heaven” (Assunzione). According to the Pope, this is truly an expression of the service of love shown by Mary.
3.2.2. In the Light of the Marian Cult (1974)
Marialis cultus is an Apostolic exhortation from Pope Paul VI promulgated on February 2, 1974. According to De Fiores, this Apostolic exhortation is a very important marian document after chapter VIII Lumen Gentium. He wrote:
“L’esortazione apostolica «Marialis cultus» costituisce, per la vastità della trattazione e la ricchezza teologica e pastorale, il documento mariano più importante dopo il capitolo VIII della Luman gentium” (The Apostolic Exhortation “Marialis Maria cultus” forms the document most importantly after chapter VIII of Lumen gentium to summarize the theological and pastoral breadth and richness).
This Montfortian Mariologist stated that the Pope spoke of practices of Marian devotion with his particular reference to the Holy Rosary. De Fiores underlined that at that time there were several reactions against the renewal of the Rosary, but finally, on March 23, 1974, the Pope continued to publish and introduce it to the public. According to the mariologist, Marialis cultus introduced the correct theological and pastoral values of the cult or worship of the Virgin Mary.
About this Apostolic Exhortation, it is explained that this document presents the Pope's contribution to the renewal of the Christian cult which began with the Second Vatican Council and was followed by the promulgation of the books of the Roman rite according to the principles and norms of the same Council. Perrella wrote:
“L’esortazione apostolica si presenta quale contributo del Vescovo di Roma all’opera rinnovatrice all’opera rinnovatrice del culto cristiano iniziata col Vaticano II e proseguita con la promulgazione dei libri del rito romano restaurati secondo i principi e le norme del medesimo Concilio” (The Apostolic Exhortation arose as a contribution by the Bishop of Rome for the renewal of Christian devotional work which began with Vatican II and continued with the promulgation of the restored Roman rite books according to the principles and norms of the same Council).
This document appears as a necessity to answer the problems that occurred in the crisis period of Marialis cultus (crisis of Marian worship). Therefore, according to the theologian, Perrella Marialis cultus – in answering these questions – re-emphasized the primacy of liturgical piety and tested the piety of the people. He also said that this was in line with the teachings of the two earlier Constitutions such as Sacrosanctum Concilium and Lumen Gentium.
Marialis cultus is one of the best Marian documents and has a very deep meaning about the piety of the people. Maggioni in his study, notes that this Apostolic Exhortation can be described as a lamp or light that helps the Church to see Mary's place (position) correctly and appropriately in the piety of the people (popular piety).
Pope Paul VI's Apostolic Exhortation was issued in order also to promote the Church's services to the Mother of Jesus, especially in the liturgical dimensions [no. 2-23), which not only introduces Mary's place in theological reflection, but also "discovers" a new perspective in presenting, or introducing who Mary is. According to De Fiores, this was done simultaneously with theologians and could be actualized because of the following two aspects: first, Marialis cultus developed the Constitution Lumen Gentium which emphasized the three elements of a Marian service (Marian cult), namely, Trinitarian, Christological, and Ecclesial (Trinitarian). , Christological and Ecclesiological). These things strengthen theologians to reflect on Mary's presence systematically. This can only be done about the various aspects of the Christian revelation that is, together with the Trinity – as described in no. 26-27 – with Christ and with the Church. Thus, what is called Mariology is explained or presented in a relationship with other mysteries of faith or with other theological and scientific disciplines such as Christology, ecclesiology, eschatology, and anthropology, including in connection with the Holy Spirit (pneumatology). That is why, in the second point, Marialis cultus shows indications of "reverence to Mary" which are biblical, liturgical, ecumenical, and anthropological. This means that it is important to avoid a theological reflection or worship that seems more maximalist-speculative because Marialis cultus only promotes liturgical worship and stimulates sensitivity to ecumenism and Mariology.
About the Marialis cultus document, we can also say that Pope Paul VI had a high spiritual intuition in seeing the role and position of Mary in the piety of the people. That is why the second part of this document talks specifically about “the renewal of Marian piety” which can be studied in no. 24-39. These numbers also speak of non-liturgical forms of Marian devotion.
Furthermore, in the third part, the Pope speaks of “Observations of Two Examples of Reverence to Mary: the Angelus and the Holy Rosary or the Crowning of the Virgin Mary".
3.2.3. In the Light of Redemptoris Mater (1987)
After the Apostolic Exhortation Marialis cultus was promulgated on February 2, 1974, by Pope Paul VI, Pope John Paul II expanded the discourse on Mary through his Encyclical Redemptoris Mater which was published on March 25, 1987. This encyclical can be referred to as the Mariological Encyclical of John Paul II. Through this encyclical, the Pope presented an in-depth discussion of the pilgrimage of faith of the Virgin Mary.
This encyclical was published in conjunction with the 1987/1988 Marian Year celebrations proclaimed by the same Pope. According to Marian research from the University of Dayton (the International Marian research), the understanding of the Mother of the Redeemer is based on the Scriptures. According to this document, the Scriptures are the source of true spiritual spirituality. This document was issued with a view to the formation of life and it is linked to doctrine (teachings), thus it is nothing but Marian’s spirituality. In contrast to Marialis cultus, it is recommended (issued) to correct true devotion, namely to correct liturgical celebrations and public expressions of devotion based on doctrinal criteria.
This encyclical, Redemptoris mater covers several main topics beginning with an introduction [cf. SM 1-6]; the first part (paragraph) is entitled “Maria del mistero di Cristo” (Mary in the mystery of Christ) [RM 7-24]. According to Perrella, this section is divided into three important points where; the first part is entitled “piena di Grazia” (full of grace) [SM 7-11]. The second paragraph is entitled “Beata colei che ha creduto” (Blessed is he who believes) [SM 12-19] and the third is entitled “Ecco la tua madre” (This is your mother) [SM 20-24]. In these paragraphs, the Pope presents biblical reflections centered on the journey of faith of the Mother of Jesus. In this understanding, it is said that Mary received, served, and understood the mysteries, divine, anthropological and messianic events of her son, Jesus.
Then in the second part, it is entitled “La Madre di Dio al Centro Della Chiesa in cammino” (Mother of God in the center of the Pilgrim Church) [SM 25-37]. According to Perrella, this section consists of three main paragraphs, where the paragraphs talk about the ecclesiastical community as God's people in real life and situations and its dynamic meaning as a community on the way amid world persecution and God's comfort. , a Church that is impregnated (impregnated for and cares for), like the Mother and servant (serva) of God.
The last part is entitled “Mediazione materna” (Motherhood [mediation] mediation) [SM 38-50]. This section has the same structure as the first and second sections. According to Perrella, there are three main paragraphs, first, “Maria serva del Signore” (Mary the servant of God) [SM 38-41]; second, “Maria Nella vita della Chiesa e di Ogni Cristiano” (Mary in the life of the Church and of every Christian) [cf. SM42-47]; and third, “Il Senso dell'Anno Mariano” (Meaning of the Year of Mary) [cf. 48-50]. Perrella notes that in these paragraphs, the Pope proposes a theological meditation and a concrete application of Mary's maternal presence and role embodied in her service to Christ in the work of salvation. So, in light of the document (SM), this theologian alludes to Mary's active role (cooperation) and her intercession (intercession) in the life of the Church.
Mary's maternal function depends essentially on the intercession of Christ. This means that the intercession of Mary is subordination to the intercession of Christ as the “Mediator” and “Redentore” (the Redeemer). In this context it can be seen that Mary is seen by the Pope as a person who actively cooperates with her son by carrying out her spiritual motherhood and intercession as “Advocata/Avvocata” (Defender), “Auxiliatrix/Ausiliatrice” (Helper), “Adiutrix/Soccorritrice” (Help), and “Mediatrix/Mediatrice” (Intermediary).
This encyclical displays the influence of the teachings of Montfort's Mariology. In an address to the Priests of Montfortian, the Pope said that St. Montfort's writings, "True Devotion to Mary" were a very important turning point in his life. Echoes of the influence of this great missionary and reverent of Mary on the life of the Pope can also be seen in the Encyclical Redemptoris Mater (Mother of the Redeemer). When speaking of Marian devotion, the Pope strongly promoted (highlighted) the “figure of Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort” (1673-1716), who proposed “Dedication to Christ through the hands of Mary” as an effective means for Christians to live out the promises. his baptismal vows faithfully” .
3.2.4. In the Light of the Rosary Virginis Mariae (2002)
De Fiores notes that Pope John Paul II, in October 2002 proclaimed the year of the Holy Rosary (October 2002 – October 2003). In this regard, in his Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae (RVM), the Pope presented the instructions for the renewal of the Rosary and dedicated them to world peace. Through this Apostolic Letter – as the Montfortian mariologist explains – the Pope introduces new elements and offers appropriate suggestions, for example, he introduces a new mystery in the Rosary namely the “Mystery of Light” (i mysteriesDellaa luce).
According to the Pope, the Rosary is a summary of the Gospels and it is at the same time a prayer containing a Christological orientation (il Rosario, dunque, preghiera di orientamento nettamente cristologico).
This document consists of several parts. The structure of the division is organized into three important sections beginning with an introduction. The first chapteContemplatelare Cristo con Maria” (With Mary, Contemplating Christ) [RVM 9-17]. The second chapter, “The Mystery of the Cristo – the mystery of DellaeMadreadre” (The Mystery of Christ-The Mystery of His Mother) [RVM 18-25]. The third chapter, “Per me vivere Cristo” (For me, life is Christ) [RVM 26-38] and then closes with a conclusion [RVM 39-43].
According to Perrella, the Rosarium Virginis Mariae is a complement to the Apostolic Letter Novo millennio ineunte (At the beginning of the new millennium) from the same Pope. This Apostolic Letter was issued to encourage (read: urge) Christians in the era of post-modernism to be able to contemplate the face of Christ. Through this document (RVM), the Pope invites the faithful to see the Rosary as a prayer in which everyone can remember (read: contemplate) the face of Christ with Mary. This prayer is beneficial to the Christian life because by contemplating the face of Christ, believers not only enter the heart of their lives as Christians but also offer intimate but beneficial spiritual and educational opportunities for personal contemplation. The Pope wrote:
“Affido questa indicazione pastorale all'iniziativa delle singole comunità ecclesiali. Con essa non intendo intralciare, ma piuttosto integrare e consolidare i piani pastorali delle Chiese particolari. Ho fiducia che essa venga accolta con generosità e prontezza. Il Rosario, se riscoperto nel suo pieno significato, porta al cuore stesso della vita cristiana ed ofre un'ordinaria quanto feconda opportunità spirituale e pedagogica per la contemplazione personale, la formazione del Popolo di Dio e la nuova evangelizzazione"(I leave this pastoral proposal to the initiative of each ecclesiastical community. I do not intend to dictate, but want to complement and integrate the pastoral programs of a particular Church. I am sure that this proposal will be accepted with sincerity and grace. The Rosary, after its restoration has its meaning , will directly touch the essence of the Christian life; the prayer of the Rosary, once its meaning is restored, will immediately touch but be effective for developing spiritual life and promoting personal reflection, formation of God's people, and new evangelization).
As a fruitful prayer for the Christian life, through the Holy Rosary, the Pope wanted to encourage the faithful to commit to meditating on the Christian mystery when he proposed it in the Apostolic Letter Novo millennio ineunte as a “training (read: training) in holiness".
Mary – in this document – is depicted as a figure who helps the faithful to contemplate the beauty of God and in this context, she helps them to contemplate the face of her son through her messianic maternal ministry. In this regard, Perrella writes:
“…nella meditazione dei misteri di Cristo e della salvezza enunciati dal Rosario (misteri della gioia, della luce, del dolore, della gloria), in un certo modo viene evocate la mirabile e teologale polisemia dello sguardo della Madre-Serva del Signore. (cf. RVM, 18-23)” (In contemplating the mysteries of Christ and salvation revealed through the Rosary (mysteries of joy, light, sorrow, glory), in a certain way, there arises an amazing and theological polysemy of views. concerning the Mothers of God).
About meditation on the Holy Rosary as proposed by the Pope, the same theologian observes that in some way the Pope invites all components within the Church to learn from Mary as a supreme “worshipper of the Triune God”, a reliable model for the faithful. to study the art of Christian contemplation.
If we pay attention to daily experiences, the Rosary is indeed a simple prayer that is loved by everyone (from children to adults). In October and May, almost at every opportunity and everywhere, people are so enthusiastic to recite it as an expression of their love and devotion to Our Lady, a simple prayer that can be used to contemplate the face of Christ, His mysteries. That is why, according to the author, with the Apostolic letter RVM, the faithful are helped to understand the essential meaning of the Holy Rosary as reflected by Pope John Paul II. The Pope wrote:
“Il Rosario, infatti, pur caratterizzato dalla sua fisionomia mariana, è preghiera dal cuore cristologico. Nella sobrietà dei suoi elementi, concentra in sé la profondità dell’intero messaggio evangelico, di cui è quasi un compendio. In esso riecheggia la preghiera di Maria, il suo perenne Magnificat per l’opera dell’Incarnazione redentrice iniziata nel suo grembo verginale. Con esso il popolo cristiano si mette alla scuola di Maria, per lasciarsi introdurre alla contemplazione della bellezza del volto di Cristo e all’esperienza della profondità del suo amore. Mediante il Rosario il credente attinge abbondanza di grazia, quasi ricevendola dalle mani stesse della Madre del Redentore"(Obviously, the Rosary has Mary characteristics. But at its core the Rosary is a christocentric prayer. In its simple elements, the Rosary presents the essence of the Gospel message in its entirety; thus the Rosary can be said to be a summary of the entire Bible. The Rosary is echo of Mary's prayer, the Rosary is the eternal Magnificat in praise of the saving work of the incarnation, which began in Mary's virginal womb. By praying the Rosary Christians study in Mary's school, they are trained to see the beauty of Christ's face and experience the depths of His love. the prayer of the Rosary of the faithful receive abundant graces through the hands of the Mother of the Redeemer herself).
Thus, praying the Rosary means having the opportunity to immerse yourself in the art of contemplation of the mysteries of Christ, to be precise in contemplating the beauty of Christ's face and at the same time experiencing the depths of His love in everyday life. Through this devotion, Christians learn to know and understand Christ from Mary, are united with Christ with Mary, pray to Christ with Mary and proclaim Christ with Mary.
The Second Vatican Council has called for a reform of the Christocentric and theocentric characteristics of Catholic teaching on “salvation” to counter false ideologies (views) of God and practices that cloud faith. In this regard, the whole of chapter VIII of the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium speaks specifically of Mary. The Council demonstrated the special role of Mary both to Christ as Savior and to the Church. It is said that Mary is not above the Church – like pre-conciliar theological views (theological tendencies) which emphasize the cristotipica dimension – but places Mary as a member of the Church. In this context, the Council affirmed that Mary is the model (typos) of the Church. So, just like the Church, Mary is the Virgin Mother who gave birth to and brought Christ to the world, and as the Church submits herself totally and as a virgin opens herself to God's saving action. Thus, it is clear when it is said that Mary herself needs salvation like the Church because she too is a member of the Church who is superior and very special and becomes an example for the faithful (cf. LG 53).
The Council also emphasized that the virtues of Mary are the basis or basis for the need for a devotion of the faithful. In this context, devotion to Mary in no way reduces the dignity and nature of Christ as the only Mediator (1 Tim 2:5). Thus, this requires proper attention to how to be devoted to Mary. From these views, may every Christian learn how to live or express his devotion to the Virgin Mary? Two extreme attitudes often arise in the life of the Church. The first relates to “Marian's minimalism” (underestimating Maria) and “Marian maximalism” (exaggerating Maria). Anyway, we can only enter into friendship with God when we are also able to embrace the hands of our fellow brothers and sisters who are sick, who are poor and weak, helpless, and victims of the injustices of the “world”. In this context, what is called “human mediation” becomes an important and necessary element. At this point, the role and figure of Mary are presented in the mediating midst between God and man, who because of her virtues and deep faith (cf. Lk 1:38) can enter into perfect friendship with God and humbly carry out His will for the salvation of mankind. The second thing, it is necessary to avoid a misunderstanding that urges someone to let go or get rid of Maria in his life. The Council emphasized that devotion to Mary in no way interferes with or hinders an ecumenical dialogue (ecumenical relationship) which should be properly fostered among the separated disciples of Jesus in the Churches (cf. LG 69). The third thing, "devotion" is not the first to involve "feelings" (it is not just a matter of feeling), but rather a rich form of expression of faith that conveys a message that can be accounted for. Thus the Council also emphasized strongly that “the faithful should remember that true devotion consists not in barren and temporary feelings, nor in baseless credulity (cf. LG 67).
Pope Paul VI reminds us that devotion to Mary always refers to the Scriptures (cf. MC 30,37). So, by entering into the Scriptures, we will realize what is at the core and content of the faith expressed in the devotion to Mary that the God we believe in is the One who comes looking for us like a mother who has lost her children faithfully seeks and finds her. He is the God who will never 'stay still' and be happy as long as His children are divided and become victims of evil, and injustice to each other.
The Catholic faith enters life and culture and society when that culture is purified with evangelical values. In this regard, the so-called 'inculturation of faith in the liturgy and devotion' is expected to be able to present the value of faith that penetrates strongly and deeply in certain lives and cultures. Therefore, when devotion is interpreted correctly, placed appropriately and proportionally, for example, knows the difference between a vocation and a liturgy, then it (devotion) brings worship into the lives of the faithful in a certain culture, place, and time. The devotion that is practiced in daily life, whether it is devotion to the Virgin Mary or the saints, allows the practice of faith to be able to penetrate more thoroughly the daily life of the people.
In this regard, how understanding the devotion of the people in the context of the life of society will help the Church to better understand their spiritual longings. That is why the Church wants to approach people from within their own culture (the Church which is incarnation in culture), taking seriously the human and spiritual richness of a culture that is expressed in worship, joy, and solidarity as well as local languages and traditions. Thus, as initiated in the Directory, no. 91 that the devotion that has emerged lived, or been accepted over the centuries in the Church is a sign that faith is ingrained in the hearts of the people and has an influence on them.
Although devotion on the one hand has become entrenched in a certain habit (culture), on the other hand, the faithful who practice it need to be introspective and aware of the dangers, for example; dangers regarding the lack of Christian or evangelical value elements of the practice, a lack of Christ-centeredness (Christocentric), or the dangers of promoting sects or even idols, magic, fatalism or coercionThis often happens precisely because the emphasis is on the external rather than the internal (inner) aspect of a donation. Therefore, good and true devotion is not only centered on personal piety, ut instead sharpens social and charitable sensitivity in social life. Thus, this devotion will also enable everyone to build a sense of solidarity with those who are less fortunate, accompany them in suffering, and become agents of change in society.
Moreover, true devotion must lead people to experience a strong and intimate union with Jesus Christ as stressed by Saint Montfort and especially by the Church's Magisterium. This means that what is lived in a devotion that is revealed in certain prayer practices, should be done in union with God through Christ and the Holy Spirit. That is why devotion to the Virgin Mary as well as devotion to the saints of God should always be in an intimate relationship with Jesus. In the practice of piety, it is not the Saints or Saints and even the Virgin Mary who get more attention and become the goal of the devotion, but Christ, He is the center and goal of a devotion. So, Mary's presence in the devotion directed at her is relational to God, she becomes the intercessor of our prayers to God. So, Mary may be called the "mediator" or even "the mediator of all graces". Mary's intercession, therefore, does not obscure, let alone diminish, and replaces the single intercession of Christ (cf. LG 60-62).
Magisterium of the Church (Ajaran Gereja) The Ordinary Universal Magisterium of the Roman Pontiff
Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica sulla necessità di venerare e imitare la Beata Vergine Maria, Madre della Chiesa ed esempio di tutte le virtù Signum magnum (13 maggio 1967), in Enchiridion Vaticanum (= EV), EDB, Bologna 1979, vol. 2, 1177-1193.
Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica per il retto ordinamento e sviluppo del culto della Beata Vergine Maria, Marialis cultus 40 (2 febbraio 1974), in Enchiridion Vaticanum [=EV], EDB, Bologna 1979, vol. 5, 13-97.
Giovanni Paolo II, Udienza generale 2 maggio 1979, in Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 1979, vol. II
___________, Lettera enciclica sulla Beata Vergine Maria nella Chiesa in cammino, Redemptoris Mater (25 marzo 1987), in Enchiridion delle Encicliche [= EE], EDB, Bologna 1998, vol. 8, 615-774.
___________, Lettera apostolica sul santo Rosario, Rosarium Virginis Mariae 18 (16 ottobre 2002), in Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2003, vol. XXV,2, 522-551.
The Ordinary Universal Magisterium of the Councils, Dokumen Konsili Vatikan II, terj. R. Hardawiryana, Obor, Jakarta 2004.
Second Vatican Council, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum concilium 2 (December 4, 1963), in The Documents of Vatican II: With Notes and Index. Vatican Translation, St. Pauls Publication, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2009.
___________, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen gentium (November 21, 1964), in The Documents of Vatican II: With Notes and Index. Vatican Translation, St. Pauls Publication, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2009.
Katekismus Gereja Katolik, Arnoldus, Ende 1995.
The other Magisterial Documents: Congregation For Divine Worship And The Discipline Of The Sacraments, Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy. Principles and Guidelines, Vatican Translation by Pauline Books & Media, Boston 2002.
De Fiores, S., Maria. Nuovissimo Dizionario 2, EDB, Bologna 2006.
III. Books and articles
Amato, A., Maria la Theotokos. Conoscenza ed esperienza, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2011.
__________, «Il magistero mariano di Giovanni Paolo II nel quadro del magistero conciliare e postconciliare» in E. Toniolo (a cura di), Il magistero mariano di Giovanni Paolo II. Percorsi e punti salienti, Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 2006.
Beiting, P. Ralph W., Tanya Jawab tentang Bakti Sejati kepada Maria, terj. Ludovikus Ndona, Serikat Maria Montfortan, Delegasi Indonesia, Bandung 2003.
Cortinovis, B., Montfort Pilgrim in the Church, terj. Bross Julien Rabiller at al., St. Gabriel Press, Rome 1997. De Fiores, S., Maria presenza viva nel popolo di Dio, Edizioni Monfortane, Roma 1980.
__________, Maria nella teologia contemporanea, Centro di Cultura Mariana, «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 1991.
De Montfort, L. M. G., Traité de la vraie devotion a la Sainte Vierge, n. 121, dans M. Gendrot (sous la direction), Œuvres completes de saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Éditions du seuil, Paris 1966.
__________, Bakti Sejati kepada Maria, terj. Mgr. Ishak Doera, Pr, Serikat Maria Montfortan, Bandung 2000.
Eilers, Franz-Josef (ed)., For All the People of Asia, Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences Documents from 1997 to 2001, vol. 3, Claretian Publication, Quezon City 2002.
Groenen, C., Mariologi. Teologi dan Devosi, Kanisius, Yogyakarta 1988.
Haryono, YB., Devosi-devosi umat: Sejarah, Makna dan Bahayanya, Obor, Jakarta 2011.
Hornby, A. S., Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1995.
Maggioni, C., «Culto e pietà mariana nel medioevo (sec. XI-XVI)», in E. M. Toniolo (a cura di), La Madre del Signore dal medioevo al rinascimento. Itinerari mariani dei due millenni, vol. III, Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 1998.
__________, Benedetto il frutto del tuo grembo. Due milleni di pietà mariana, Portalupi Editore .r.l, Casale Monferrato 2000.
__________, «Memoria e profezia della «Marialis cultus» a trent’anni dall’Esortazione apostolica di Paolo VI», in Theotokos XII (2004).
__________, «Il rapporto della Chiesa con Maria: culto e forme di devozione nel capitolo VIII della Lumen gentium», in E. M. Toniolo (a cura di), Maria nel concilio. Approfondimenti e percorsi a 40 anni dalla «Lumen gentium», Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 2005.
Manek, G., Rosario. Nafas Anak-anak Maria, Ledalero, Maumere 2007.
__________, «A proposito di pietà popolare mariana», in Theotokos 25, (2017).
Martasudjita, E., Pengantar Liturgi. Makna, Sejarah dan Teologi Liturgi, Kanisius, Yogyakarta 1999.
Perrella, S. M., La Madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea. Saggi di teologia. PAMI, Città del Vaticano 2005.
__________, «Percorsi teologici postconciliari: dalla Lumen gentium ad oggi» in E. M. Toniolo (a cura di), Maria nel concilio, approfondimenti e percorsi, Centro di Cultura Mariana, «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 2005.
Riquet, M., «Préface», dans D. Hubert Du Manoir (sous la direction), Maria. Études sur la Sainte Vierge, Tome V, Beauchesne, Paris 1952.
Scannone, J. C., Religiosità popolare, sapienza del popolo e teologia popolare, in Communio 12 (1987).
Toniolo, E., La Beata Maria Vergine nel Concilio Vaticano II. Cronistoria del Capitolo VIII della Costituzione dogmatica «Lumen Gentium» e sinossi di tutte le redazioni, Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 2004.
Tostain, A., “Devotion(s)”, dans A. Bossard (sous la direction), Petit Vocabulaire Marial. Collection “Voici ta Mere”, Desclee De Brouwer, Paris 1979.
Wotan, Fidelis B., Semana Santa and Devotion to Tuan Ma (Mary, Mater Dolorosa): An Inheritance of Faith in the Work of Evangelization of Dominican Missionaries in Larantuka, Flores-Indonesia. (Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Licenciate in Sacred Theology with Specialization in Mariology), “Marianum”, Pontifical Faculty of Theology, Rome 2018.
Https://udayton.edu/imri/mary/m/magisterial-documents-redemptoris-mater.php. (Accessed April 5, 2018 6:20 p.m.).
Https://militia-immaculatae.asia/indonesian/info152.php. (Accessed September 8, 2018, 10:25 am).
Http://yesaya.indocell.net/id1268.htm. (Accessed September 8, 2018, 10:30 am).
Http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_jp ii_exh_06111999_ecclesia-in-asia.html. (Diakses tanggal 7 September 2018, pkl.10.48).
Https://udayton.edu/imri/mary/m/magisterial-documents-recurrens-mensis-october.php. (Accessed 11 October 2018, 11:37 am).
 In this regard, YB. Haryono explained thus: "Whether we realize it or not, there are also possibilities of some local elements that can become the characteristics of the local Church and distinguish devotion from one place to another, but it needs further study". YB. Haryono, People's Devotions: History, Meaning, and Dangers, Torch, Jakarta 2011, p. 13-14.
 cf. E. Martasudjita, Pengantar Liturgi. Makna, Sejarah dan Teologi Liturgi, Kanisius, Yogyakarta 1999, p. 143.
 cf A. Tostain, “Devotion(s)”, dans A. Bossard (sous la direction), Petit Vocabulaire Marial. Collection “Voici ta Mere”, Desclee De Brouwer, Paris 1979, p. 59
 cf. Congregation For Divine Worship And The Discipline Of The Sacraments, Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy. Principles and Guidelines, Vatican Translation by Pauline Books & Media, Boston 2002, n. 8, p. 21.
 cf M. Riquet, «Préface», dans D. Hubert Du Manoir (sous la direction), Maria. Études sur la Sainte Vierge, Tome V, Beauchesne, Paris 1952, p. 9.
 A. S. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1995, p. 284.
 cf. S. De Fiores, Maria presenza viva nel popolo di Dio, Edizioni Monfortane, Roma 1980, p. 113.
 cf. C. Groenen, Mariologi. Teologi dan Devosi, Kanisius, Yogyakarta 1988, n. 316, p. 149.
 According to JC Scannone, this is an ongoing pastoral restoration, with enormous practical consequences, but it is also an act of theological inheritance whose theoretical fruits have not been sufficiently clarified. cf. JC Scannone, Religiosità popolare, sapienza del popolo e theologia popolare, in Communio 12 (1987), n. 95, p. 32.
 cf. John Paul II, Ecclesia in Asia, n. 22 in http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paulii/en/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_jp-ii_exh_06111999_ecclesia-in-asia.html. (Diakses tanggal 7 September 2018, pkl. 10.48 di Seminari “Ponsa”, Malang).
 cf. YB. Haryono, Devosi-devosi umat: Sejarah, Makna dan Bahayanya, hlm. 16. Bdk. Franz-Josef Eilers (ed)., For All the People of Asia, Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences Documents from 1997 to 2001, vol. 3, Claretian Publication, Quezon City 2002, p. 315-316.
 cf. Congregation For Divine Worship And The Discipline Of The Sacraments, Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy. Principles and Guidelines, n. 7, p. 21.
 cf. Ibidem, n. 8, p. 21.
 Here are some explanations: “The term «popular piety» designates those diverse cultic expressions of a private or community nature which, in the context of the Christian faith, are inspired predominantly not by the Sacred Liturgy but by forms deriving from a particular nation or people or their culture. Popular piety has rightly been regarded as «a treasure of the people of God» and «manifests a thirst for God known only to the poor and to the humble … ». Congregation For Divine Worship And The Discipline Of The Sacraments, Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy. Principles and Guidelines, n. 9, p. 21.
 Ibidem, n. 10, p. 21. In a Mariology thesis that was done some time ago in Rome, where the author found that the term popular religiosity (religiosity of the people) is often understood as well as when people mention or use another term, namely popular religion (people's religion). cf. Fidelis B. Wotan, Semana Santa and Devotion to Tuan Ma (Mary, Mater Dolorosa): An Inheritance of Faith in the Work of Evangelization of Dominican Missionaries in Larantuka, Flores-Indonesia. (Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Licenciate in Sacred Theology with Specialization in Mariology), “Marianum”, Pontifical Faculty of Theology, Rome 2018, p. 140-144. According to De Fiores, this term (popular religion) is used to describe how Christians are incarnated in culture and different ethnic groups, and then it manifests and is implemented in the life of society (ummah). cf. S. De Fiores, Maria presenza viva nel popolo di Dio, p. 161
 According to Haryono, the word "ummah" is a translation of the popular word. In a footnote, he explains thus: “We recognize the weakness of the translation because “ummah” is a noun while “popular” is an adjective”. According to him, this term is understood simply as something related to the common people, society, and even specifically to the People of God. He also perceives this term as something that comes from the community at a certain time and in a certain culture, in a certain local Church, and becomes a valuable property. From there, it spread everywhere, even according to Haryono, it became universal and applied in other places. He also explains the meaning of the term popular, which is sometimes seen as the word popular as opposed to the elite; both in an intellectual and spiritual sense. He said that the term is also seen as opposition to something “official, official”, religion controlled by a well-organized leadership. With this understanding, it can be understood that in ancient times the devotions appeared within the framework of the official liturgy. He wrote: “But over time, many forms of devotion to Mary and other saints, models, and figures of our faith, were developed and practiced without an ordained priest. In contrast to the official liturgical forms that come from above, these popular forms usually come from below. intellectual elite group, spiritual and hierarchical often view the popular as a characteristic of the common people and in some ways culturally and spiritually inferior ... Recently, along with the recognition of religious and cultural diversity, respect for traditional societies and traditions and concern for minority groups and oppressed, the elitist approach to something popular also changes. A more positive appreciation or view of something popular is growing; openness to wealth belonging to the general public (the poor) is also increasingly fertile. People are now starting to speak positively about the religious riches of traditional societies.” YB. Haryono, People's Devotions: History, Meaning, and Dangers, p. 22-23. respect for traditional societies and traditions as well as concern for minority and oppressed groups, the elitist approach to what is popular has also changed. A more positive appreciation or view of something popular is growing; openness to wealth belonging to the general public (the poor) is also increasingly fertile. People are now starting to speak positively about the religious riches of traditional societies.” YB. Haryono, People's Devotions: History, Meaning, and Dangers, p. 22-23. respect for traditional societies and traditions as well as concern for minority and oppressed groups, the elitist approach to what is popular has also changed. A more positive appreciation or view of something popular is growing; openness to wealth belonging to the general public (the poor) is also increasingly fertile. People are now starting to speak positively about the religious riches of traditional societies.” YB. Haryono, People's Devotions: History, Meaning, and Dangers, p. 22-23. openness to wealth belonging to the general public (the poor) is also increasingly fertile. People are now starting to speak positively about the religious riches of traditional societies.” YB. Haryono, People's Devotions: History, Meaning, and Dangers, p. 22-23. openness to wealth belonging to the general public (the poor) is also increasingly fertile. People are now starting to speak positively about the religious riches of traditional societies.” YB. Haryono, People's Devotions: History, Meaning, and Dangers, p. 22-23.
 Ibidem, p. 18. Bdk. Dokumen Puebla, n. 448 dalam Katekismus Gereja Katolik, Arnoldus, Ende 1995, p. 1676.
 YB. Haryono, Devosi-devosi umat: Sejarah, Makna dan Bahayanya, p. 18.
 Ibidem, p. 18-19.
 Ibidem, p. 19.
 Ibidem, p. 23.
 cf. A. Tostain, “Devotion(s)”, dans A. Bossard (sous la direction), Petit Vocabulaire Marial. Collection “Voici ta Mere”, p. 59.
 Haryono said that external devotion was related to “a series of prayers”, while internal devotion was related to what he called “surrender to Allah”. YB. Haryono, People's Devotions: History, Meaning, and Dangers, p. 23.
 Ibidem, p. 24.
 Ibidem, p. 25.
 According to Haryono, Pope Paul VI's Apostolic Constitution Indulgentiarum Doctrina (1 January 1967) is a reading that can help us understand indulgences, in which the doctrine of indulgences and their general norms are explained thoroughly. cf. Ibidem, p. 26.
 cf. Ibidem. The practice of devotion to the Virgin Mary (for example through the Rosary) in the sense of course has an important value in the tradition or Spirituality of the Dominican Order (OP) which is then widely practiced in lay organization groups, namely, Confraria or Confraternity (Brotherhood Groups) which draw on the spirituality of Dominican monks. . In connection with this devotion, the Church later established October 7 as the Feast of Mary, Queen of the Rosary. According to a liturgical expert who has worked at the Vatican since the 90s, P. Corrado Maggioni, SMM, this feast has a long history in the life of the Church. Thus, the commemoration of Our Lady as Queen of the Rosary cannot be separated from the historic event in Lepanto, October 7, 1571, wherein a great battle the Turkish Muslim army was defeated by the Christian army thanks to the help of the Rosary Prayer which was recited by all Catholics as recommended (orders) from Pope Pius V (1566-1572). Then his successor Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) emphasized the importance of the Rosary and celebrated it in the first week of October the Feast of Mary Queen of the Rosary in all Dominican convents, in every confraternity, and all churches by setting up special altars in honor of Mary, the Virgin (Queen) of the Rosary. Corrado wrote: «La memoria della beata Vergine del Rosario riporta alla domenica 7 ottobre del 1571, quando nelle acque di Lepanto la flotta Cristiana affrontò la ben più numerosa armata turca: in vista del combattimento, il papa domenicano san Pio V aveva esortato tutti i fedeli ad implorare l'aiuto del cielo con la preghiera del Rosario. L'insperata vittoria sull'avanzata musulmana suscit grande impressione e fu salutata come prodigioso frutto dell'intervento divino, ottenuto per l'intercessione della Vergine. A perpetuo ricordo, l'anno seguente il medesimo Pio V istituì la Comemorazione della Beata Vergine della Vittoria, fissandola al 7 ottobre. A distanza di un anno, nel 1573, il suo successore Gregorio XIII esplicitò l'importanza del Rosario, concedendo di celebrare, nella prima domenica di ottobre, la festa del Santo Rosario della Beata Vergine Maria all'Ordine domenicano, alle Confraternite del Santo Rosario e alle chiese dotate di un altare in onore della Vergine del Rosario ….». C. Maggioni, Benedetto il frutto del tuo grembo. Due milleni di pietà mariana, Portalupi Editore srl, Casale Monferrato 2000, p. 165-166.
 From https://militia-immaculatae.asia/indonesian/info152.php it says: “Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus is a physical, heart-centered devotion that is a symbol of His atoning love. Although tradition often places the beginning of the practice of devotion at 1000, it may be more accurate to place its birth at the time of the great mystics (St. Anselm and St. Bernard) between 1050 and 1150. In the Middle Ages, because of the strong emphasis on the Passion of Our Lord, and because of St. efforts. Bonaventure and St. Gertrude the Great, this devotion became popular as a means of worshiping the mystery of Christ, who lives in the Church. This devotion was promoted by the great saints, including St. Albert the Great, St. Catherine of Siena, St. Francis de Sales, as well as by the major religious orders, such as the Benedictines, Dominicans, and Cardinians. However, it should be noted that the Saint most often associated with this devotion is St. Margaret Maria Alacoque (1647-1690). After he received the Apparitions of the Sacred Heart, which made the devotion popular, he was scorned by his superior Mother who thought he was delusional. The Santa became sick. Superior mother told St. Margareta Maria that she would believe in miraculous apparitions if Santa was healed. He and St. Margareta were able to promote this devotion under the guidance of her spiritual director, St. Claude Colombiere. Several books have been published on his many correspondences, sayings, and revelations given to him by our Lord.” cf. The Santa became sick. Superior mother told St. Margareta Maria that she would believe in miraculous apparitions if Santa was healed. He and St. Margareta were able to promote this devotion under the guidance of her spiritual director, St. Claude Colombiere. Several books have been published on his many correspondences, sayings, and revelations given to him by our Lord.” cf. The Santa became sick. Superior mother told St. Margareta Maria that she would believe in miraculous apparitions if Santa was healed. He and St. Margareta were able to promote this devotion under the guidance of her spiritual director, St. Claude Colombiere. Several books have been published on his many correspondences, sayings, and revelations were given to him by our Lord.” cf https://militia-immaculatae.asia/indonesian/info152.php. (Accessed September 8, 2018, 10:25 am).
 The story of the Miraculous Medal/Testament begins with the appearance of Our Lady to St. Katarina Laboure, a novice at the Motherhouse of the Sisters of Princess Charity in Paris. In these two apparitions (1830), Our Lady explained several important things to him. During that time (July 18, 1830), Our Lady spoke to him and delivered several prophecies which later proved to be true. To find out some information about this story, see Http://yesaya.indocell.net/id1268.htm. (Accessed September 8, 2018, 10:30 am).
 YB. Haryono, People's Devotions: History, Meaning, and Dangers, p. 26.
 According to him, the most famous composition is Stabat Mater, in rhythm, attributed to Jacopone da Todi († 1303), who experienced auspicious – tremendous success in all European countries. cf. C. Maggioni, «Culto e pietà mariana nel medioevo (sec. XI-XVI)», in EM Toniolo (a cura di), La Madre del Signore dal medioevo al rinascimento. Itinerari mariani dei due millenni, vol. III, Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Rome 1998, p. 93-94.
 C. Groenen said that the devotion of the people (read: people) who pray through the intercession of the Virgin Mary, is usually very concrete and realistic. He sees that the starting point for this devotion is the daily reality, namely daily life with all its needs. He wrote: “People ask Mary for healing, work, a mate, passing exams, additional income/salary, repentance of certain people, freedom from pests, plagues, wars, natural disasters, etc. C. Groenen, Mariology, Theology and Devotion, n. 354, p. 171.
 This is in strong contact with the formulation of Christian doctrines or teachings which are not derived from speculative thoughts but from an appreciation of the spiritual life of early Christians expressed through prayer, worship, etc. cf. Fidelis B. Wotan, Semana Santa and Devotion to Tuan Ma (Mary, Mater Dolorosa): An Inheritance of Faith in the Work of Evangelization of Dominican Missionaries in Larantuka, Flores-Indonesia, p. 153.
 Giovanni Paolo II, Lettera enciclica sulla Beata Vergine Maria nella Chiesa in cammino, Redemptoris Mater n. 48 (25 marzo 1987), in Enchiridion delle Encicliche [= EE], EDB, Bologna 1998, vol. 8, 615-774.
 The devotion that Montfort advocates are not simply an activity of prayer or a 'devotional', but rather an expressed and devoted surrender of oneself to Jesus Christ. The devotion he teaches here is deeply Christocentric, with Christ at the center. This saint stated that, if true devotion to Mary does not mold us to become more and more like Jesus Christ, it is clear that devotion is very “diabolical” (more a satanic deception and misleading). cf. LMG De Montfort, True Devotion to Mary, trans. Mgr. Ishak Doera, Pr, Union of Maria Montfortan, Bandung 2000, n. 61-67, pp. 63-68. (hereinafter written BS).
 cf. TD 108.
 Montfort says: “no devotion asks of a man so many sacrifices to God, which empties himself more and deprives himself of self-love, and keeps more faithfully in mercy and grace within him; no devotion unites people more perfectly and more easily with Jesus Christ; In short, there is no service that glorifies God more, purifies humans more and benefits others more." TD 118.
 cf. TD 157
 Montfort also mentions – apart from promoting true devotion to Mary – some features of pseudo (false) devotions to Mary. He found there were seven (7) reverence for Mary and devotion to Mary that were false, namely critics, those who were too sensitive, those who were shallow, those who were presumptuous, those who did not stand firm, those who were self-righteous, and those who sought their profit.
 TD 118; cf TD 82.
 Montfort menunjukkan bahwa semua orang dipanggil kepada kesempurnaan (kekudusan). Kekudusan itu harus selalu diusahakan dalam kehidupan sekarang di dunia, bukan menantinya di akhir zaman. Jadi, kekudusan itu sesuatu yang harus dihidupi di dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. St. Paulus mengatakan bahwa pertumbuhan kekudusan itu terarah kepada persatuan yang erat dengan Yesus (bdk. Ef 4:13). Dengan demikian, kekudusan itu terus-menerus diupayakan sampai Kristus hidup di dalam diri seseorang. Begitu juga Montfort menegaskan hal yang sama bahwa kekudusan itu tak pernah selesai, bersifat dinamis bukan statis. Bagi Montfort, Yesus Sang Kebijaksanaan yang Menjelma adalah prinsip kekudusan Kristiani dalam Gereja. Ia menulis: Seluruh kesempurnaan kita terdiri dari hal ini, bahwa kita serupa dengan Yesus Kristus, bersatu dengan-Nya dan dibaktikan kepada-Nya. Dari situ jelas sekali bahwa devosi yang paling sempurna adalah devosi yang secara paling sempurna membuat kita serupa dengan Yesus Kristus… Nah, dari semua makhluk, Maria adalah yang paling serupa dengan Yesus Kristus… BS 120.
 TD 82
 Sebuah istilah yang dipakai Montfort untuk mengungkapkan penyerahan diri secara total kepada Perawan Maria supaya melaluinya (Maria) siapapun menjadi milik Yesus Kristus sepenuhnya. Bdk. BS 121.
 TD 121.
 By surrendering oneself completely, one enters a new depth of Christ's ownership of oneself. The power of redemption, the intensity of oneness with Christ through Mary is more and more firmly manifested in everyday life through 'Self Consecration.'
 TD 121
 TD 61, 121.
 Maybe we ask how to surrender oneself (body and all its feelings and all its members) to Mary? It must be remembered that after devoting oneself, one continues to use and control one's body. But from that moment on, he was invited to look at his body and all his feelings in a new way. Someone tried to pay special respect to his body because he had presented it to Mary in a special way. She needs to "groom" her body to keep it clean and dress it up neatly because now her body is Maria's. In this case, we too can mortify (askese) and realize the evil tendencies that exist within ourselves because our bodies (you and I) are the 'tools' of Our Lady. Our body already belongs to Mary, one can use it according to his heart's will. cf. P. Ralph W. Beiting, Questions and Answers on True Devotion to Mary, trans. Ludovikus Ndona, Union of Maria Montfortan, Indonesian Delegation, Bandung 2003, p.12.
 According to Battista Cortinovis' understanding, what Montfort thinks or reflects on Christocentrism in terms of respect for Mary or devotion to Mary is true, all of which are centered on the Person of Jesus Christ. Battista said: “Montfort's Christocentrism emerges also when he presents the practice of the devotion that he wants to teach. A tender and true devotion to Mary is indicated by Montfort solely as a means – the most marvelous – to have and conserve Divine Wisdom”. B. Cortinovis, Montfort Pilgrim in the Church, trans. Bross Julien Rabiller at al., St. Gabriel Press, Rome 1997, p. 117.
 TD 62.
 TD 214
 cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium n. 51 (November 21, 1964), in The Documents of Vatican II: With Notes and Index. Vatican Translation, St. Pauls Publication, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2009, p. 144.
 Second Vatican Council, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum concilium 2 (December 4, 1963), in The Documents of Vatican II: With Notes and Index. Vatican Translation, St. Pauls Publication, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2009, hlm. 91
 Ibidem, 7, p. 93-94.
 cf. SM Perrella, La Madre di Ges nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea. Saggi in theology. PAMI, Città del Vaticano 2005, p. 519-520.
 C. Maggioni, «A proposito di pietà popolare mariana», in Theotokos 25, (2017), p. 166.
 Second Vatican Council, Constitution on the sacred liturgy Sacrosanctum concilium 13, p. 96.
 C. Maggioni, «A proposito di pietà popolare mariana», p. 166.
 cf. Ibidem.
 Paus Yohanes Paulus II menjelaskan bahwa Lumen gentium dalam arti tertentu merupakan “magna carta” (baca: piagam besar) dari mariologi dalam dunia modern. Beliau menulis: «La Chiesa di tutti i tempi, incominciando dal Cenacolo della Pentecoste, circonda sempre Maria di una venerazione particolare e si rivolge a lei con una peculiare fiducia. La Chiesa dei nostri tempi, mediante il Concilio Vaticano II, ha fatto una sintesi di tutto ciò che era cresciuto durante le generazioni. Il capitolo ottavo della Costituzione dogmatica Lumen gentium è in un certo senso una «magna charta» della mariologia per la nostra epoca: Maria presente in modo particolare nel mistero della Chiesa, Maria «Madre della Chiesa», come iniziò a chiamarla Paolo VI (nel Credo del Popolo di Dio), dedicandoLe in seguito un documento a parte («Marialis cultus»)» (The Church throughout the ages, starting with Pentecost in the senacle [upper room], always surrounds Mary with a special reverence and greets her with special conviction. The Church of our time, through the Second Vatican Council, has synthesized all that has been The eighth chapter of the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium is in a sense a Mariological “magna charta” for our time: Mary is present in a certain way in the mystery of the Church: a title that Paul VI began by addressing her (in prayer I Believe, God's people) then dedicating her a document (“Marialis cultus”). Giovanni Paolo II, Udienza generale 2 maggio 1979, in Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 1979, vol. II, p. 1034.
 E. Toniolo wrote: “il testo mariologico più importante del magistero di questi duemila anni della religione cristiana, synthesis of ponderosa della dottrina e del culto della Chiesa Cattolica (e di tutte le Chiese Cristiane) verso la Madre di Dio” (Text) the most important mariology of this two-thousand-year-old magisterium of Christianity, a powerful synthesis of the doctrine and devotion of the Catholic Church (and all Christians) to Our Lady). E. Toniolo, La Beata Maria Vergine nel Concilio Vaticano II. Cronistoria del Capitolo VIII della Costituzione dogmatica «Lumen Gentium» e sinossi di tutte le redazioni, Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Rome 2004, p. 15
 cf. SM Perrella, La Madre di Ges nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea. Saggi in theology, p. 78. cf. A. Amato, Maria la Theotokos. Conoscenza ed esperienza, p. 214-215
 S. De Fiores, Maria presenza viva nel popolo di Dio, p. 129
 cf. S. M. Perrella, «Percorsi teologici postconciliari: dalla Lumen gentium ad oggi» in E. M. Toniolo (a cura di), Maria nel concilio, approfondimenti e percorsi, Centro di Cultura Mariana, «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 2005, p. 193-194
 cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen gentium n. 66, p. 178.
 cf. C. Maggioni, «Il rapporto della Chiesa con Maria: culto e forme di devozione nel capitolo VIII della Lumen gentium», in E. M. Toniolo (a cura di), Maria nel concilio. Approfondimenti e percorsi a 40 anni dalla «Lumen gentium», Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 2005, p. 40
 It is said 'later' or 'later' because there is a view that says that the cult and/or veneration of Mary emerged after the cult of the martyrs. However, if you look at the indications of respect for Mary in the New Testament, some texts show the opposite that long before there was a cult of martyrs, there was already a Marian cult that was lived by the early Christian Community. cf. Fidelis B. Wotan, Semana Santa and Devotion to Tuan Ma (Mary, Mater Dolorosa): An Inheritance of Faith in the Work of Evangelization of Dominican Missionaries in Larantuka, Flores-Indonesia, p. 178-180.
 According to Groenen, “the most common and common is the prayer to Mary. It has been said that prayers, praises, thanksgivings, and supplications addressed to God because of (reason) Mary, the mother of Jesus, are not a problem. Mary is a work of God's creation and the work of salvation. Examples of such prayers are already in the Bible. Mary herself praised and thanked Him because the Almighty did a great deed for Mary (Luke 1:46-47). Elizabeth also praised Mary as "blessed" (by God), so she deserves to be praised as happy (Luke 1:42.45). A new problem arises when Mary herself becomes the object of prayer.” C. Groenen, Mariology. Theology and Devotion, Canisius, n. 349, p. 168-169.
 Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen gentium 66, hlm. 178. Bdk. Dokumen Konsili Vatikan II, terj. R. Hardawiryana, Obor, Jakarta 2004, p. 159-160
 In this context, Maggioni speaks of the oldest cult-related marian prayer to the Virgin Mary. He wrote: “Al riguardo si ricorda la preghiera «Sub tuum praesidium» (sec. III), rivolta direttamente alla Madre di Dio, sentita dai credenti quale potente rifugio e sicura protezione. E a seguire, viene menzionato il Concilio di Efeso, dal quale, con la confessione della Theotokos, prese incremento nel popolo cristiano il culto mariano, qualificato dal dettato conciliare con quattro aggettivazioni: venerazione; amore; invocazione; imitazione». (In this case, we remember the prayer “Sub tuum praesidium (III century), which is addressed directly to the Mother of God, which believers feel as a strong and safe refuge. And to follow it, the Council of Ephesus is called the origin from which the title Theotokos is derived. appear, Mary's service awakens Christians, who meet the requirements of a council that mentions four adjectives: reverence, love, exclamation and imitation. C. Maggioni, «Il rapporto della Chiesa con Maria: culto e forme di devozione nel capitolo VIII della Lumen gentium», p. 141
 About intimate relations as an important attitude in Marian’s devotion, the “classical theologian”, Saint Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort has proposed a devotion that makes Mary the means or way to reach her son. He emphasized the importance of this relationship with Mary as a way (read: way) to unite oneself with Jesus. He called this a "Total Consecration to Jesus through the hands of Mary". cf. LM Grignion De Montfort, Traité de la vraie devotion a la Sainte Vierge, n. 121, dans M. Gendrot (sous la direction), uvres completes de saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, ditions du seuil, Paris 1966, p. 563-564. cf. LMG De Montfort, True Devotion to Mary, trans. Mgr. Ishak Doera, Pr, Union of Maria Montfortan, Bandung 2000, p. 97-98.
 cf. C. Maggioni, «Il rapporto della Chiesa con Maria: culto e forme di devozione nel capitolo VIII della Lumen gentium», p. 141.
 Maggioni says that recognizing or not recognizing the importance of sacred images to liturgical piety is in keeping with the marian cult. cf. C. Maggioni, «Il rapporto della Chiesa con Maria: culto e forme di devozione nel capitolo VIII della Lumen gentium», p. 145.
 According to Perrella, they should be guided by sources of faith such as the Scriptures, the teachings of the Church Fathers and holy poets, and the Church's liturgies under the teaching authority of the Church. cf. SM Perrella, «Percorsi theologici postconciliari: dalla «Lumen gentium» ad oggi», in EM Toniolo (a cura di), Maria nel concilio. Approfondimenti e percorsi a 40 anni dalla «Lumen gentium», Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Rome 2005, p. 217-218. cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium 67, p. 178.
 The council wrote: “Let the faithful remember moreover that true devotion consists neither in sterile or transitory affection, nor in a certain vain credulity, but proceeds from true faith, by which we are led to know the excellence of the Mother of God, and we are moved to a filial love toward our mother and to the imitation of her virtues.” rooted in true faith, which invites us to recognize the superiority of the Mother of God, and encourages us as sons and daughters to love our Mother and imitate her virtues).
 Penjelasan ini dikutip dari pernyataan professor teologi dogmatik, Perrella dalam mata kuliahnya tentang “Magisterio ordinario post conciliare” pada 14 April 2017 di Pontificia Facoltà Teologica “Marianum”, Roma. Bdk. S. M. Perrella, La madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di teologia, hlm. 173-176.
 cf S. De Fiores, Maria nella teologia contemporanea, Centro di Cultura Mariana, «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 1991, hlm. 128-130. Bdk. Idem, Maria presenza viva nel popolo di Dio, hlm. 222-227. Bdk. Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica per il retto ordinamento e sviluppo del culto della Beata Vergine Maria, Marialis cultus 40 (2 febbraio 1974), in Enchiridion Vaticanum [=EV], EDB, Bologna 1979, n. 71, p. 101.
 cf. S. De Fiores, Maria nella teologia contemporanea, Centro di Cultura Mariana, «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 1991, hlm. 128-130. Bdk. Idem, Maria presenza viva nel popolo di Dio, hlm. 222-227. Bdk. Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica Marialis cultus cit., 40, n. 71, p. 101.
 Mense Maio (29 April 1965) merupakan Ensiklik Paus Paulus VI yang berpusat pada Sang Perawan Maria yang mana secara tradisioanl bulan Mei dipersembahkan sebagai bulan untuk menghormati Maria. Dalam ensiklik itu, Paus menyatakan bahwa Maria berhak dihormati sebagai suatu jalan di mana semua orang dapat dituntun menuju Kristus. Bdk. A. Amato, Maria la Theotokos. Conoscenza ed esperienza, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2011, hlm. 220
 Christi Matri (15 September 1966), is Pope Paul VI's Encyclical that calls on all Catholics around the world to pray the Rosary throughout October. This call is intended so that people can find true world peace, where even wars can be stopped
 Recurrent mensis (7 October 1969), is the Apostolic Exhortation of Pope Paul VI in which the Pope explains and fosters the traditional forms of the Rosary. The main emphasis of this document is the effort to refresh and encourage the need for devotion to the Rosary. There are described three sections on the "intercession of Mary" as a way to return to God. In the first part, the people are called to be "peacemakers". The second part talks about the obligation of every Christian to pray and the third part lists what the intention of prayer is. cf. Ibidem. cf. https://udayton.edu/imri/mary/m/magisterial-documents-recurrens-mensis october.php. (Accessed 11 October 2018, 11:37 am).
 cf. Ibidem. Bdk. Idem, «Il magistero mariano di Giovanni Paolo II nel quadro del magistero conciliare e postconciliare» in E. Toniolo (a cura di), Il magistero mariano di Giovanni Paolo II. Percorsi e punti salienti, Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Roma 2006, p. 88.
 Signum magnum (a Great sign) is an Apostolic Exhortation from Pope Paul VI which speaks of the consecration of the world to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin Mary. This document consists of an introduction and two related sections. The two sections are, “il culto a Maria come to Madre Della Chiesa” and “devote imitazione delle virtù di Maria” (“Devotion to Mary as Mother of the Church” and “imitation of Mary's virtues”). Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica sulla necessità di venerare e imitare la Beata Vergine Maria, Madre della Chiesa ed esempio di tutte le virtù Signum magnum (13 maggio 1967), in Enchiridion Vaticanum (= EV), EDB, Bologna 1979, vol. 2, 1179, 1186, pp. 985, 993.
 cf. S. M. Perrella, La madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di teologia, p. 168. Bdk. A. Amato, Maria la Theotokos. Conoscenza ed esperienza, p. 220.
 Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica Signum magnum, cit., Ip., n. 1179, p. 985
 cf. S. M. Perrella, La madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di teologia, p. 168.
 cf. Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica Signum magnum, cit., Ip., n. 1179, p. 985
 The Pope wrote: “Maria, non appena fu rassicurata dalla voce dell'Angelo Gabriele che Dio la eleggeva a Madre intemerata del suo Figlio Unigenito, senza porre indugio diee il proprio assenso ad un'opera che avrebbe impegnato sua tutte le energie della fragile natura, dichiarando: Ecco l'ancella del Signore, si faccia di me secondo la tua parola”. (Mary, as soon as she was convinced by the voice of the Angel Gabriel that God chose her as the Mother of His Only Begotten Son, without delay she consented to a mission that would involve all the energies of her humanity's frailty, declaring: "I am a servant of God, let it be done to me according to your word" ). Ibidem, n. 1183, p. 989.
 S. De Fiores, Maria presenza viva nel popolo di Dio, p. 101
 cf. Ibidem.
 S. M. Perrella, La madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di teologia, p. 173
 This Apostolic Exhortation of Pope Paul VI is divided into several parts: first, it talks about the cult (worship) of the Virgin Mary in the liturgy [no. 1-23]. Second, talking about the renewal of Marian piety (Marian piety) [no. 24-39). Third, talk about pious exercises such as Angelus Domini (God's Angel) and the Holy Rosary [no. 40-58]. The last section deals with the theological and pastoral value of devotion to the Virgin Mary. This section is the conclusion of the entire document [no. 56-59).
 Ibidem, p. 173
 C. Maggioni, «Memoria e profezia della «Marialis cultus» a trent’anni dall’Esortazione apostolica di Paolo VI», in Theotokos XII (2004), p. 401
 cf. S. De Fiores, Maria presenza viva nel popolo di Dio, p. 103
 cf. Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica Marialis cultus cit., 29-39, nn. 56-70, p. 85-101
 cf. Ibidem., 29, n. 56, p. 124
 One example that can be seen is what Catholics in Larantuka have done for more than 500 years in the practice of devotion to Mary, "Tuan Ma" (Mater Dolorosa) every year at the Semana Santa celebration.
 Paolo VI, Esortazione apostolica Marialis cultus cit., 40, n. 71, p. 101
 cf. Giovanni Paolo II, Lettera enciclica Redemptoris Mater 17, in Enchiridion delle Encicliche [= EE], EDB, Bologna 1998, vol. 8, n. 656, p. 623
 cf, https://udayton.edu/imri/mary/m/magisterial-documents-redemptoris-mater.php. (Accessed April 5, 2018 6:20 p.m.).
 cf. SM Perrella, La madre di Ges nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di theology, p. 188. cf. EM Toniolo, «Nota sul magistero mariano di Giovanni Paolo II», in EM Toniolo (a cura di) Il magistero mariano di Giovanni Paolo II. Percorsi e punti salienti, Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», Rome 2006, p. 11
 cf. S. M. Perrella, La madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di teologia, hlm. 190. Bdk. E. M. Toniolo, «Nota sul magistero mariano di Giovanni Paolo II»,p.12.
 In SM no. 38, the Pope spoke specifically about “motherhood mediation” (materna mediazione) as a major theme of his teaching and this theme is actually “Uno Dei Cardini del Documento di Giovanni Paolo II” (one of the main documents of John Paul II).
 cf. S. M. Perrella, La madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di teologia, p. 190.
 Ibidem, p. 195
 cf. Giovanni Paolo II, Lettera enciclica Redemptoris mater cit., 38, n. 721, p. 679.
 cf. Ibidem, n. 48, p. 780.
 cf. S. De Fiores, Maria. Nuovissimo Dizionario 2, EDB, Bologna 2006, p. 1402
 Through this Apostolic Exhortation, De Fiores explains that Christ is the Mystery of Light itself. That is why the Pope named it “I mystery Della luce” as stated in RVM n. 21 is none other than the mysteries of Christ beginning with his childhood and hiding in Nazareth until his public life. cf. Ibidem, p. 1404.
 cf. Giovanni Paolo II, Lettera apostolica sul santo Rosario, Rosarium Virginis Mariae 18 (16 ottobre 2002), in Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2003, vol. XXV,2, p. 533.
 cf. Ibidem, p. 522-551
 Novo millennio ineunte (6 January 2001) is an Apostolic Letter of Pope John Paul II addressed to bishops, ministers of the Church, and another clergy, "at the end of the Great Jubilee of 2000". It is said that this letter sets out the priorities of the Roman Catholic Church for the third millennium, etc. The concentration is on Jesus Christ as the center and goal of all the priorities of the Church
 cf. S. M. Perrella, La madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di teologia, p. 231
 Giovanni Paolo II, Esortazione apostolica Rosarium Virginis Mariae cit., 3, p. 524.
 cf. Ibidem. Bdk. S. M. Perrella, La madre di Gesù nella coscienza ecclesiale contemporanea, Saggi di teologia, p. 231.
 Ibidem, p. 232-233
 cf. Ibidem., p. 234.
 Giovanni Paolo II, Esortazione apostolica Rosarium Virginis Mariae cit., 1, p. 522.
 cf. G. Manek, Rosario. Nafas Anak-anak Maria, Ledalero, Maumere 2007, hlm. xxxvi. Bdk. Giovanni Paolo II, Esortazione apostolica Rosarium Virginis Mariae cit., 12, p. 528.
 cf. YB. Haryono, Devosi-devosi Umat. Sejarah, Makna, Manfaat, dan Bahayanya, 6. 64-65
 cf. Ibidem, p. 60-61.